Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Artificial skin creates first ticklish devices
A new interface takes touch technology to the next level by providing an artificial skin-like membrane for augmenting interactive devices such as phones, wearables or computers.
New haptic arm places robotics within easy reach
Imagine being able to build and use a robotic device without the need for expensive, specialist kit or skills. That is the vision that researchers have now turned into reality, creating a lightweight, affordable and simple solution for everyday users.
Land management practices to reduce nitrogen load may be affected by climate changes
Nitrogen from agricultural production is a major cause of pollution in the Mississippi River Basin and contributes to large dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico. Illinois and other Midwestern states have set goals to reduce nitrogen load through strategies that include different land management practices. A new study uses computer modeling to estimate how those practices may be affected by potential changes in the climate, such as increased rainfall.
Deep learning method transforms shapes
Called LOGAN, the deep neural network, i.e., a machine of sorts, can learn to transform the shapes of two different objects, for example, a chair and a table, in a natural way, without seeing any paired transforms between the shapes.
Flexible, wearable supercapacitors based on porous nanocarbon nanocomposites
Evening gowns with interwoven LEDs may look extravagant, but the light sources need a constant power supply from devices that are as well wearable, durable, and lightweight. Chinese scientists have manufactured fibrous electrodes for wearable devices that are flexible and excel by their high energy density. A microfluidic technology was key for the preparation of the electrode material was a microfluidic technology, as shown in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
Big data technique reveals previously unknown capabilities of common materials
Researchers have found a new way to optimize nickel by unlocking properties that could enable numerous applications, from biosensors to quantum computing.
Blanket of light may give better quantum computers
Researchers describe how -- by simple means -- they have created a 'carpet' of thousands of quantum-mechanically entangled light pulses. The discovery has the potential to pave the way for more powerful quantum computers.
Highest throughput 3D printer is the future of manufacturing
Researchers have developed a new, futuristic 3D printer that is so big and so fast it can print an object the size of an adult human in just a couple of hours.
Weaving quantum processors out of laser light
Researchers open a new avenue to quantum computing with a breakthrough experiment: a large-scale quantum processor made entirely of light.
Darn you, R2! When can we blame robots?
A recent study finds that people are likely to blame robots for workplace accidents, but only if they believe the robots are autonomous.
Giving robots a faster grasp
Engineers have found a way to significantly speed up the planning process required for a robot to adjust its grasp on an object by pushing that object against a stationary surface. Whereas traditional algorithms would require tens of minutes for planning out a sequence of motions, the new team's approach shaves this planning process down to less than a second.
Bio-circuitry mimics synapses and neurons in a step toward sensory computing
Researchers have demonstrated bio-inspired devices that accelerate routes to neuromorphic, or brain-like, computing. Their discovery could support the emergence of computing networks modeled on biology for a sensory approach to machine learning.
First demonstration of one petabit per second network node
Computer scientists have demonstrated the first large-scale optical switching testbed capable of handling 1 Petabit per second optical signals. This demonstration made use of state-of-the-art large-scale and low-loss optical switches based on MEMS technology, three types of next-generation spatial-division multiplexing fibers, and included data rates from 10 Terabit per second to 1 Petabit per second. This is a major step forward towards practical petabit-class backbone networks.
Daily exposure to blue light may accelerate aging, even if it doesn't reach your eyes
Prolonged exposure to blue light, such as that which emanates from your phone, computer and household fixtures, could be affecting your longevity, even if it's not shining in your eyes. New research suggests that the blue wavelengths produced by light-emitting diodes damage cells in the brain as well as retinas, according to a new study in a model organism.
Mathematical modeling vital to tackling disease outbreaks
Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study.
Information theory as a forensics tool for investigating climate mysteries
During Earth's last glacial period, temperatures on the planet periodically spiked dramatically and rapidly. A new article suggests that mathematics from information theory could offer a powerful tool for analyzing and understanding these mysterious events.
New augmented reality system lets smartphone users get hands-on with virtual objects
A new augmented reality system places virtual objects within real-world backgrounds on cell phone screens and lets people interact with those object by hand as if they were really there.
Consumers trust influencers less when there is a variety of choices for a product
Consumers have been relying on opinion leader recommendations to make choices about product quality and purchases for a long time. It is even more prominent now with the prevalence of influencers on social media platforms. The problem is, when there is a wide variety of the same product, consumers question if a positive recommendation is based on quality or personal preferences.
Recovering 'lost dimensions' of images and video
Researchers have developed a model that recovers valuable data lost from images and video that have been 'collapsed' into lower dimensions.
Clingfish biology inspires better suction cup
A team of engineers and marine biologists built a better suction cup inspired by the mechanism that allows the clingfish to adhere to both smooth and rough surfaces. Researchers reverse engineered the clingfish's suction disk and developed devices that cling well to wet and dry objects both in an out of water. The devices can hold up to hundreds of times their own weight.
Family members' emotional attachment limits family firm growth
New research shows family-related considerations often trump a desire to grow and expand in family firms.
Use of social media is taking place both online and offline
Social media has changed how people interact. However, social media use is neither static or specifically linked to certain platforms. Emerging technical capabilities, changes in lifestyle and time management as well as the increasing possibilities to engage in online and offline interaction simultaneously affect our use of social media.
Assembler robots make large structures from little pieces
Systems of tiny robots may someday build high-performance structures, from airplanes to space settlements.
Brands are resilient against 'fake news' on social media
'Fake news' stories targeting corporations may be obnoxious, but a new study finds that they likely pose little threat to well-established brands.
Computer models show clear advantages in new types of wind turbines
Researchers have modeled the fluid dynamics of multi-rotor wind turbines via high-resolution numerical simulations. The simulations demonstrate a clear advantage for a turbine model with four rotors. The researchers found, that the wind turbine wake recovers much faster with multi-rotor turbines, that multi-rotor turbines produce slightly more energy than single-rotor turbines, and that a turbine with four rotors as far apart as possible is the optimal construction.
Virtual walking system for re-experiencing the journey of another person
Virtual-reality researchers have developed a virtual-walking system that records a person's walking and re-plays it with vision and foot vibrations. Psychological experiments showed that the sensation of walking and telepresence from the oscillating visual flow combined with foot vibrations is stronger than without vibrations. The system can reconstruct the experience of walking to people who are a distance away, or who have a disability that may impair walking in the future.
Do we trust artificial intelligence agents to mediate conflict? Not entirely
We may listen to facts from Siri or Alexa, or directions from Google Maps or Waze, but would we let a virtual agent enabled by artificial intelligence help mediate conflict among team members? A new study says not just yet.
First smart speaker system that uses white noise to monitor infants' breathing
Researchers have developed a new smart speaker skill that lets a device use white noise to both soothe sleeping babies and monitor their breathing and movement.
Experiment measures velocity in 3D
Many of today's scientific processes are simulated using computer-driven mathematical models. But for a model to accurately predict how air flow behaves at high speeds, for example, scientists need supplemental real life data. Providing validation data, using up-to-date methods, was a key motivating factor for a recent experimental study.
AI could offer warnings about serious side effects of drug-drug interactions
Researchers have developed a machine learning system that may be able to warn doctors and patients about possible negative side effects that might occur when drugs are mixed.
Putting the power of a film director in an autonomous drone
Commercial drone products can tackle some automated tasks, but one thing those systems don't address is filming artistically. Researchers have now proposed a complete system for aerial cinematography that learns humans' visual preferences. The fully autonomous system does not require scripted scenes, GPS tags to localize targets or prior maps of the environment.
Researchers build a soft robot with neurologic capabilities
In work that combines a deep understanding of the biology of soft-bodied animals such as earthworms with advances in materials and electronic technologies, researchers have developed a robotic device containing a stretchable transistor that allows neurological function.
Diversity may be key to reducing errors in quantum computing
In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered.
Quantum paradox experiment may lead to more accurate clocks and sensors
More accurate clocks and sensors may result from a recently proposed experiment, linking an Einstein-devised paradox to quantum mechanics. A physicist said the international collaboration aimed to test Einstein's twin paradox using quantum particles in a 'superposition' state.
Women have substantially less influence on Twitter than men in academic medicine
Women who are health policy or health services researchers face a significant disparity in social media influence compared to their male peers, according to a new study. Although the average number of tweets among all researchers tend to be consistent, women trail behind men in follower counts, regardless of how active they are on Twitter.
Scientists reveal mechanism of electron charge exchange in molecules
Through a new scanning transmission electron microscopy method, researchers are able to observe electron distribution between atoms and molecules and uncover clues to the origins of ferroelectricity, the capacity of certain crystals to possess spontaneous electric polarization that can be switched by the application of an electric field. The research also revealed the mechanism of charge transfer between two materials.
Hydrologic simulation models that inform policy decisions are difficult to interpret
Hydrologic models that simulate and predict water flow are used to estimate how natural systems respond to different scenarios such as changes in climate, land use, and soil management. The output from these models can inform policy and regulatory decisions regarding water and land management practices. Numerical models have become increasingly easy to employ with advances in computer technology and software with graphical user interface (GUI). While these technologies make the models more accessible, problems can arise if they are used by inexperienced modelers.
'Electroadhesive' stamp picks up and puts down microscopic structures
New technique could enable assembly of circuit boards and displays with more minute components.
New soft actuators could make soft robots less bulky
Engineers have developed a way to build soft robots that are compact, portable and multifunctional. The advance was made possible by creating soft, tubular actuators whose movements are electrically controlled, making them easy to integrate with small electronic components. As a proof of concept, engineers used the new actuators to build an untethered, battery-powered, walking soft robot and a soft gripper.
Controlling superconducting regions within an exotic metal
Researchers have created a metallic microdevice in which they can define and tune patterns of superconductivity. Their discovery holds great promise for quantum technologies of the future.
Combination of techniques could improve security for IoT devices
A multi-pronged data analysis approach that can strengthen the security of Internet of Things (IoT) devices -- such as smart TVs, home video cameras and baby monitors -- against current risks and threats has been created.
That new yarn? Wearable, washable textile devices are possible with MXene-coated yarns
Researchers have figured out how to add more conductivity into functional fabric devices, by coating yarns with a 2-dimensional carbon-based material called MXene, to make conductive threads. The group has developed a dip-coating method, similar to the dyeing process, that can produce a conductive yarn strong enough for use in industrial knitting machines and durable enough to make it through wash cycles without degrading.
Engineers solve 50-year-old puzzle in signal processing
Engineers have solved a 50-year-old puzzle in signal processing. They've formulated the 'inverse chirp z-transform,' an algorithm related to one that's running on your cell phone right now. It took some computing power and some math expertise to do it.
AI and big data predict which research will influence future medical treatments
An artificial intelligence/machine learning model to predict which scientific advances are likely to eventually translate to the clinic has been developed.
New material could someday power quantum computer
Quantum computers with the ability to perform complex calculations, encrypt data more securely and more quickly predict the spread of viruses, may be within closer reach thanks to a new discovery.
New CEOs can raise their social game to keep their jobs
A new study shows that two key factors can make freshly appointed CEOs more vulnerable and raise the odds they'll get fired. The job security of a new CEO tends to suffer when the stock market reacts badly or when the previous CEO stays on as board chair, according to the study. But the study found that the new CEO can overcome these challenges with what researchers call ''social influence behaviors.''
Biologically-inspired skin improves robots' sensory abilities
Sensitive synthetic skin enables robots to sense their own bodies and surroundings - a crucial capability if they are to be in close contact with people. Inspired by human skin, a team has developed a system combining artificial skin with control algorithms and used it to create the first autonomous humanoid robot with full-body artificial skin.
Intelligent, shape-morphing, self-healing material for soft robotics
Advances in the fields of soft robotics, wearable technologies, and human/machine interfaces require a new class of stretchable materials that can change shape adaptively while relying only on portable electronics for power. Researchers have developed such a material that exhibits a unique combination of high electrical and thermal conductivity with actuation capabilities that are unlike any other soft composite.
Algorithm personalizes which cancer mutations are best targets for immunotherapy
As tumor cells multiply, they often spawn tens of thousands of genetic mutations. Figuring out which ones are the most promising to target with immunotherapy is like finding a few needles in a haystack. Now a new model hand-picks those needles so they can be leveraged in more effective, customized cancer vaccines.
System can minimize damage when self-driving vehicles crash
Engineers have developed decision-making and motion-planning technology to limit injuries and damage when self-driving vehicles are involved in unavoidable crashes. After recognizing that a collision of some kind is inevitable, the system works by analyzing all available options and choosing the course of action with the least serious outcome.
First entirely digital clinical trial encourages physical activity
As little as a daily ping on your phone can boost physical activity, researchers report in a new study.
Virtual review of cancer clinical trial treatment options quicker than conventional method
Using virtual, cloud-based, interconnected computing techniques applied to 51,000 variables, researchers reduced the time needed to assess a cancer patient's tumor profile and suitability for clinical trials from 14 to 4 days. This method also increased two-fold, over a four-year period, the number of cases that could be assessed compared to conventional methods.
Bio-inspired theoretical research may make robots more effective on the future battlefield
In an effort to make robots more effective and versatile teammates for Soldiers in combat, researchers are on a mission to understand the value of the molecular living functionality of muscle, and the fundamental mechanics that would need to be replicated in order to artificially achieve the capabilities arising from the proteins responsible for muscle contraction.
Physicists couple key components of quantum technologies
Researchers are engaged in intensive work on the components of quantum technologies - these include circuits processing information using single photons instead of electricity, as well as light sources producing such quanta of light. Coupling these components to produce integrated quantum optical circuits on chips presents a challenge. Researchers have developed an interface that couples light sources for single photons with nanophotonic networks consisting of photonic crystals which can be replicated by using established nanofabrication processes.
Deep3DFly: The deep-learning way to design fly-like robots
Scientists have developed a deep-learning based motion-capture software that uses multiple camera views to model the movements of a fly in three dimensions. The ultimate aim is to use this knowledge to design fly-like robots.
Irony and humor keep teenage #gymlads healthy on social media
Teenage boys rely on social media to access a wealth of information about living a healthy lifestyle -- but rather than being victims of online harms, such as an unhealthy body image obsession, the majority are able to use humor, irony and banter to navigate social media content.
Researchers use game theory to successfully identify bacterial antibiotic resistance
Researchers have developed a novel way to identify previously unrecognized antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria.
Scientists observe a single quantum vibration under ordinary conditions
Scientists have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature.
Cooling nanotube resonators with electrons
Researchers report on a technique that uses electron transport to cool a nanomechanical resonator near the quantum regime.
Compact infrared spectrometer
Researchers have developed a compact infrared spectrometer. It's small enough to fit on a computer chip but can still open up interesting possibilities -- in space and in everyday life.
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