Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Surgeons successfully treat brain aneurysms using a robot
A robot was used to treat brain aneurysms for the first time. The robotic system could eventually allow remote surgery, enabling surgeons to treat strokes from afar.
Shaping the rings of molecules
Chemists discover a natural process to control the shape of 'macrocycles,' molecules of large rings of atoms, for use in pharmaceuticals and electronics.
Artificial intelligence yields new antibiotic
Using a machine-learning algorithm, researchers have identified a powerful new antibiotic compound. In laboratory tests, the drug killed many of the world's most problematic disease-causing bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to all known antibiotics. It also cleared infections in two different mouse models.
Cryptographic 'tag of everything' could protect the supply chain
To combat supply chain counterfeiting, which can cost companies billions of dollars annually, researchers have invented a cryptographic ID tag that's small enough to fit on virtually any product and verify its authenticity.
New artificial intelligence algorithm better predicts corn yield
With some reports predicting the precision agriculture market will reach $12.9 billion by 2027, there is an increasing need to develop sophisticated data-analysis solutions that can guide management decisions in real time. A new study offers a promising approach to efficiently and accurately process precision agricultural data.
10,000 times faster calculations of many-body quantum dynamics possible
How an electron behaves in an atom, or how it moves in a solid, can be predicted precisely with the equations of quantum mechanics. These theoretical calculations agree with the results from experiments. But complex quantum systems, which contain many electrons or elementary particles can currently not be described exactly. A team has now developed a simulation method, which enables quantum mechanical calculations up to around 10,000 times faster than previously possible.
New graphene-based metasurface capable of independent amplitude and phase control of light
Researchers described a new strategy of designing metamolecules that incorporates two independently controllable subwavelength meta-atoms. This two-parametric control of the metamolecule secures the complete control of both amplitude and the phase of light.
Magnet-controlled bioelectronic implant could relieve pain
An electrical and computer engineer has introduced the first neural implant that can be programmed and charged remotely with a magnetic field.
Scientists develop open-source software to analyze economics of biofuels, bioproducts
Perennial grasses can be converted into everything from ethanol to bioplastics, but it's unclear which bioproducts hold the greatest potential. BioSTEAM, a new open-source simulation software package in Python gives scientists, engineers, biotechnology companies, and funding agencies a fast, flexible tool to analyze the economics of producing different biofuels and bioproducts -- in a matter of seconds.
What if we could teach photons to behave like electrons?
The researchers tricked photons - which are intrinsically non-magnetic - into behaving like charged electrons. They accomplished this by sending the photons through carefully designed mazes in a way that caused the light particles to behave as if they were being acted upon by what the scientists called a ''synthetic'' or ''artificial'' magnetic field.
New mathematical model reveals how major groups arise in evolution
Researchers presents a new mathematical model of patterns of diversity in the fossil record, which offers a solution to Darwin's ''abominable mystery'' and strengthens our understanding of how modern groups originate.
'Flapping wings' powered by the sun
In ancient Greek mythology, Icarus' wax wings melted when he dared to fly too close to the sun. Now, researchers have made artificial wings that are actually powered by the sun. The tiny wings, which can flap even faster than those of butterflies, could someday be used in robots or devices for solar energy harvesting, the researchers say.
Cobalt supply can meet demand for electric vehicle and electronics batteries
Greater use of electric vehicles might be good for the environment, but further growth hinges on continued availability of critical battery components such as cobalt. Cell phones and other electronics also depend on the element's availability. Supplies of the metal are adequate in the short term, but shortages could develop down the road if refining and recycling aren't ramped up or made more efficient, according to new research.
Mixed-signal hardware security thwarts powerful electromagnetic attacks
A team has developed technology to use mixed-signal circuits to embed critical information that is suppressed at a lower level.
Creating custom light using 2D materials
Making artificial structures that emit light tailored to our specific needs is an even more attractive proposition. However, light emission in a semi-conductor only occurs when certain conditions are met. Researchers have discovered an entire class of two-dimensional materials that are the thickness of one or a few atoms. When combined together, these atomically thin crystals are capable of forming structures that emit customizable light in the desired color.
Wall Street investors react to climate change
Institutional investors are factoring climate risks into their investment decisions.
Simple, fuel-efficient rocket engine could enable cheaper, lighter spacecraft
Researchers have developed a mathematical model that describes how rotating detonation engines work.
Topological materials outperform through quantum periodic motion
Scientists have discovered that applying vibrational motion in a periodic manner may be the key to preventing dissipations of the desired electron states that would make advanced quantum computing and spintronics possible.
Getting a grip: An innovative mechanical controller design for robot-assisted surgery
Scientists designed a new type of controller for the robotic arm used in robotic surgery. Their controller combines the two distinct types of gripping used in commercially available robotic systems to leverage the advantages of both, reducing the efforts of the surgeon and providing good precision.
Chemists have described how computational algorithms paired with chemical DNA synthesis enable digital manufacturing of biological systems up to the size of entire microbial genomes. They have made insights related to the design, building and testing of a computer-generated bacterial genome and can discuss how algorithms simplify the synthesis of genomes to advance understanding of living systems.
Low-cost 'smart' diaper can notify caregiver when it's wet
Researchers have developed a ''smart'' diaper embedded with a moisture sensor that can alert a caregiver when a diaper is wet. When the sensor detects dampness in the diaper, it sends a signal to a nearby receiver, which in turn can send a notification to a smartphone or computer.
Leaking away essential resources isn't wasteful, actually helps cells grow
Experts have been unable to explain why cells from bacteria to humans leak essential chemicals necessary for growth into their environment. New mathematical models reveal that leaking metabolites -- substances involved in the chemical processes to sustain life with production of complex molecules and energy -- may provide cells both selfish and selfless benefits.
Researchers devise approach to reduce biases in computer vision data sets
Addressing problems of bias in artificial intelligence, computer scientists have developed methods to obtain fairer data sets containing images of people. The researchers propose improvements to ImageNet, a database of more than 14 million images that has played a key role in advancing computer vision over the past decade.
Skyrmions like it hot: Spin structures are controllable even at high temperatures
Researchers who had previously demonstrated the use of new spin structures for future magnetic storage devices has yet achieved another milestone. The international team is working on structures that could serve as magnetic shift registers, so called racetrack memory devices. This type of storage promises low access times, high information density, and low energy consumption.
Consider workplace AI's impact before it's too late, study says
The consequences of workplace automation will likely impact just about every aspect of our lives, and scholars and policymakers need to start thinking about it far more broadly if they want to have a say in what the future looks like, according to a new article.
Fragile topology: Strange electron flow in future materials
Crystalline materials known as topological insulators conduct surface current perfectly, except when they don't. In two new studies published in the journal Science, researchers explain how these 'fragile' poorly conducting topological states form, and how conductivity can be restored.
Artificial intelligence finds disease-related genes
An artificial neural network can reveal patterns in huge amounts of gene expression data, and discover groups of disease-related genes. Scientists hope that the new method can eventually be applied within precision medicine and individualized treatment.
Mathematical model reveals behavior of cellular enzymes
Mathematical modeling helps researchers to understand how enzymes in the body work to ensure normal functioning. The models also can show how genetic mutations alter the enzymes' behavior in ways that cause disease, including cancer.
Computer-based weather forecast: New algorithm outperforms mainframe computer systems
The exponential growth in computer processing power seen over the past 60 years may soon come to a halt. Complex systems such as those used in weather forecast, for example, require high computing capacities, but the costs for running supercomputers to process large quantities of data can become a limiting factor. Researchers have recently unveiled an algorithm that can solve complex problems with remarkable facility -- even on a personal computer.
Storytelling can reduce VR cybersickness
A storyline with emotionally evocative details can reduce virtual reality cybersickness for some people, according to a new study. Researchers found that storylines that provide context and details can help users feel immersed in VR experiences and can reduce feelings of nausea, disorientation and eye strain, depending on a user's gaming experience.
Making the internet more energy efficient through systemic optimization
Researchers recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive.
New material has highest electron mobility among known layered magnetic materials
A new material has properties that make it a promising candidate for new areas like magnetic twistronic devices and spintronics, as well as advances in data storage and device design.
Automated system can rewrite outdated sentences in Wikipedia articles
A new system could be used to automatically update factual inconsistencies in Wikipedia articles, reducing time and effort spent by human editors who now do the task manually.
'Multitasking' AI tool to extract cancer data in record time
To better leverage cancer data for research, scientists are developing an artificial intelligence (AI)-based natural language processing tool to improve information extraction from textual pathology reports. In a first for cancer pathology reports, the team developed a multitask convolutional neural network (CNN) -- a deep learning model that learns to perform tasks, such as identifying key words in a body of text, by processing language as a two-dimensional numerical dataset.
Discovery brings nanoscale thermal switches needed for next-gen computing
Researchers have developed nanoscale thermal switches that are key to thermal management of nanoscale devices, refrigeration, data storage, thermal computing and heat management of buildings.
Heart rate measurements of wearable monitors vary by activity, not skin color
Biomedical engineers have demonstrated that while different wearable technologies, like smart watches and fitness trackers, can accurately measure heart rate across a variety of skin tones, the accuracy between devices begins to vary wildly when they measure heart rate during different types of everyday activities, like typing.
X-ray microscopy at BESSY II: Nanoparticles can change cells
Nanoparticles easily enter into cells. New insights about how they are distributed and what they do there are shown for the first time by high-resolution 3D microscopy images from BESSY II. For example, certain nanoparticles accumulate preferentially in certain organelles of the cell. This can increase the energy costs in the cell.
Making 3-D printing smarter with machine learning
3-D printing is often touted as the future of manufacturing. However it has a high degree of error, and manufacturers often need many iterations of a print before they get it right. A team of researchers is tackling this problem, with a new set of machine learning algorithms and a software tool called PrintFixer, improving print accuracy by 50 percent or more, making the process more economical and sustainable.
Software updates slowing you down?
We've all shared the frustration -- software updates that are intended to make our applications run faster inadvertently end up doing just the opposite. These bugs, dubbed in the computer science field as performance regressions, are time-consuming to fix since locating software errors normally requires substantial human intervention.
Deep learning can fool listeners by imitating any guitar amplifier
A study demonstrates that digital simulations of guitar amplifiers can sound just like the real thing. The implications are that as the software models continue to improve, they can replace traditional analogue guitar amplifiers, which are bulky, fragile and expensive.
Atom or noise? New method helps cryo-EM researchers tell the difference
Cryogenic electron microscopy can in principle make out individual atoms in a molecule, but distinguishing the crisp from the blurry parts of an image can be a challenge. A new mathematical method may help.
Using sound and light to generate ultra-fast data transfer
Researchers have made a breakthrough in the control of terahertz quantum cascade lasers, which could lead to the transmission of data at the rate of 100 gigabits per second -- around one thousand times quicker than a fast Ethernet operating at 100 megabits a second.
Artificial atoms create stable qubits for quantum computing
Quantum computing researchers have made improved qubits by exploiting concepts from high school chemistry.
New method offers more stable, efficient electrocatalytic reactions
By fluidizing catalyst particles in electrolyte instead of gluing them to electrodes, researchers made electrocatalytic reactions that are more efficient and longer lasting, which play an important role in energy storage.
DNA-like material could bring even smaller transistors
A material shaped like a one-dimensional DNA helix might further push the limits on a transistor's size. The material comes from a rare earth element called tellurium.
The human brain's meticulous interface with the bloodstream now on a precision chip
It can be the bain of brain drug developers: The interface between the human brain and the bloodstream, the blood-brain-barrier, is so meticulous that animal models often fail to represent it. This improved chip represents important features more accurately.
New technology could help solve AI's 'memory bottleneck'
Electrical engineers have developed a new magnetic memory device that could potentially support the surge of data-centric computing, which requires ever-increasing power, storage and speed.
AI, brain scans may alter how doctors treat depression
Artificial intelligence may soon play a critical role in choosing which depression therapy is best for patients.
Novel techniques for mining patented gene therapies offer promising treatment options
Scientists are working to gain a better understand of the growing number of worldwide patented innovations available for gene therapy treatment.
Engineers mix and match materials to make new stretchy electronics
A new process may be the key to manufacturing flexible electronics with multiple functionalities in a cost-effective way.
Using neutrons and X-rays to analyze the aging of lithium batteries
An international team has used neutron and X-ray tomography to investigate the dynamic processes that lead to capacity degradation at the electrodes in lithium batteries. Using a new mathematical method, it was possible to virtually unwind electrodes that had been wound into the form of a compact cylinder, and thus actually observe the processes on the surfaces of the electrodes.
Apps could take up less space on your phone, thanks to new 'streaming' software
New software 'streams' data and code resources to an app from a cloud server when necessary, allowing the app to use only the space it needs on a phone at any given time.
Portable lab you plug into your phone can diagnose illnesses like coronavirus
Engineers have created a tiny portable lab that plugs into your phone, connecting it automatically to your doctor through a custom app. The lab the size of a credit card can diagnose infectious diseases such as coronavirus, malaria, HIV or Lyme disease or countless other health conditions such as depression and anxiety.
New robot does superior job sampling blood
In the future, robots could take blood samples, benefiting patients and healthcare workers alike. A team has created a blood-sampling robot that performed as well or better than people, according to the first human clinical trial of an automated blood drawing and testing device.
Enjoying the View? How computer games can help evaluate landscapes
Geographers are stepping into the virtual world of computer games to develop exciting new ways of assessing landscapes. Researchers have spent years analyzing geographical landscapes and determining what features people from different countries find most appealing. In a bid to engage younger audiences the team created a series of videos depicting dynamic fly-throughs of virtual landscapes.
A gold butterfly can make its own semiconductor skin
A nanoscale gold butterfly provides a more precise route for growing/synthesizing nanosized semiconductors that can be used in nano-lasers and other applications.
Improving AI's ability to identify students who need help
Researchers have designed an artificial intelligence (AI) model that is better able to predict how much students are learning in educational games. The improved model makes use of an AI training concept called multi-task learning, and could be used to improve both instruction and learning outcomes.
Crystal-stacking process can produce new materials for high-tech devices
Stacking ultrathin complex oxide single-crystal layers allows researchers to create new structures with hybrid properties and multiple functions. Now, using a new platform, researchers will be able to make these stacked-crystal materials in virtually unlimited combinations.
Controlling light with light
Researchers have developed a new platform for all-optical computing, meaning computations done solely with beams of light.
Induced flaws in metamaterials can produce useful textures and behavior
A new study shows how induced defects in metamaterials -- artificial materials the properties of which are different from those in nature -- also produce radically different consistencies and behaviors. The research has far-reaching applications for several engineering disciplines.
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