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Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Volumetric 3D printing promises nearly instant builds
By using laser-generated, hologram-like 3D images flashed into photosensitive resin, researchers have discovered they can build complex 3D parts in a fraction of the time of traditional layer-by-layer printing.
Producing hydrogen from methane in a cleaner, cheaper way
A ceramic membrane makes it possible to produce compressed hydrogen from methane with near-zero energy loss.
Revolutionizing electronics using Kirigami
A research team has developed an ultrastretchable bioprobe using a 'Kirigami' designs. The Kirigami-based bioprobe enables one to follow the shape of spherical and large deformable biological samples such as heart and brain tissues. In addition, its low strain-force characteristic reduces the force induced on organs, thereby enabling minimally invasive biological signal recording.
'Toolboxes' for quantum cybersecurity
A quantum information scientist has developed efficient 'toolboxes' comprising theoretical tools and protocols for quantifying the security of high-speed quantum communication.
Insights on fast cockroaches can help teach robots to walk
Scientists show for the first time that fast insects can change their gait -- like a mammal's transition from trot to gallop. These new insights could contribute to making the locomotion of robots more energy efficient.
Screen time before bed linked with less sleep, higher BMIs in kids
It may be tempting to let your kids stay up late playing games on their smartphones, but using digital devices before bed may contribute to sleep and nutrition problems in children, according to researchers.
Virtual reality makes journalism immersive, realism makes it credible
Virtual reality technology may help journalists pull an audience into their stories, but they should avoid being too flashy, or their credibility could suffer, according to a team of researchers.
Hydropower dam energy without sacrificing Mekong food supply: New research offers solution
Nearly 100 hydropower dams are planned for construction along tributaries off the Mekong River's 2,700-mile stretch. In a new article, researchers present a mathematical formula to balance power generation needs with the needs of fisheries downstream.
Rules for superconductivity mirrored in 'excitonic insulator'
Physicists dedicated to creating the working components of a fault-tolerant quantum computer have succeeded in creating an 'excitonic insulator,' a previously unseen state of matter that could be useful for encoding information in a topological quantum computer.
5G set to revolutionize communications and to transform industry
The new generation of 5G mobile networks is the future of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector -- a true technological revolution that will deliver the Internet of Things.
Security flaw found: 10 million banking app users at risk
Researchers have developed a tool to perform semi-automated security testing of mobile phone apps. After running the tool on a sample of 400 security critical apps, they were able to identify a critical vulnerability in banking apps.
Some video games are good for older adults' brains
Playing 3D-platform video games on a regular basis may improve cognitive functions in seniors and increase grey matter in a brain structure called the hippocampus, a new study suggests.
Controlling spin for memory storage
Researchers have learned how to manipulation of a material's magnetism, making room for faster magnetic memory devices.
Smartphone health apps miss some daily activity of users
The iPhone's Health app and its built-in pedometer miss a significant number of users' steps during a typical day, a new study has found. That's good news for people who self-monitor their physical activity; they are probably getting more exercise than they realize. But the results should raise some caution among researchers who want to tap into the smartphone's enormous potential for gathering health data.
Try this! Researchers devise better recommendation algorithm
Most recommendation systems use a measure called cosine similarity, which seems to work well in practice. Last year, a team of researchers used a new theoretical framework to demonstrate why, indeed, cosine similarity yields such good results. Now they are reporting that they have used their framework to construct a new recommendation algorithm that should work better than those in use today, particularly when ratings data is "sparse" -- that is, when there is little overlap between the products reviewed and the ratings assigned by different customers.
Towards data storage at the single molecule level
Similar to normal hard drives, so-called spin-crossover molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team has now managed to place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve its storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold.
New algorithm repairs corrupted digital images in one step
Computer scientists have designed a new algorithm that incorporates artificial neural networks to simultaneously apply a wide range of fixes to corrupted digital images. The researchers tested their algorithm by taking high-quality, uncorrupted images, purposely introducing severe degradations, then using the algorithm to repair the damage. In many cases, the algorithm outperformed competitors' techniques, very nearly returning the images to their original state.
In first, 3-D printed objects connect to WiFi without electronics
Engineers have developed the first 3-D printed plastic objects that can connect to other devices via WiFi without using any electronics, including a laundry bottle that can detect when soap is running low and automatically order more.
Experiment demonstrates quantum mechanical effects from biological system
Using green fluorescent proteins obtained from Escherichia coli, researchers have demonstrated quantum mechanical effects from a biological system.
Protein-folding simulations sped up
Proteins are huge molecules whose function depends on how they fold into intricate structures. To understand how these molecules work, researchers use computer modeling to calculate how proteins fold. Now, a new algorithm can accelerate those vital simulations, enabling them to model phenomena that were previously out of reach. The results can eventually help scientists better understand and treat diseases like Alzheimer's.
Conflicting views on social media balanced by an algorithm
Researchers have designed an algorithm that is able to balance the information exposure so that social media users can be exposed to information from both sides of the discussion.
First step toward practical application of holographic memory with magnetic assist
Scientists have successfully applied magnetic assist recording to magnetic-holographic memory to reduce recording energy consumption and achieve error-free data reconstruction. This new technology is promising for practical application of magnetic-holographic memory as a rewritable, ultra-high-density, high-speed optical information storage medium.
Virtual reality users must learn to use what they see
When most people put on a virtual reality headset, they still treat what they see like it's happening on any run-of-the-mill TV screen, research finds.
New robots can see into their future
Researchers have developed a robotic learning technology that enables robots to imagine the future of their actions so they can figure out how to manipulate objects they have never encountered before. In the future, this technology could help self-driving cars anticipate future events on the road and produce more intelligent robotic assistants in homes, but the initial prototype focuses on learning simple manual skills entirely from autonomous play.
Replicating peregrine falcon attack strategies could help down rogue drones
Peregrine falcons steer their attacks using the same control strategies as guided missiles, new research indicates. The findings could be applied to the design of small, visually guided drones that can take down other 'rogue' drones in settings such as airports or prisons.
Computer simulations reveal roots of drug resistance
New supercomputer simulations have revealed the role of transport proteins called efflux pumps in creating drug-resistance in bacteria, research that could lead to improving the drugs' effectiveness against life-threatening diseases and restoring the efficacy of defunct antibiotics.
Electricity generated from low-cost biomaterial
Mobile phone speakers and motion detectors in cars and video games may soon be powered by electricity generated from low cost and sustainable biomaterials, according to new research.
Nature's toughest substances decoded
Researchers have developed computer simulations to decode nature's toughest materials, like seashells and tooth enamel, to guide making synthetic multifunctional composites.
Online risks are routine for teens, most bounce back
Teens routinely encounter online risks, such as sexual solicitations, cyberbullying and explicit material, but research shows that the negative effects of such exposure appear to be temporary, vanishing for most teens in less than a week. A new study found that typical teens seem to be resilient and cope with most online risks, moving beyond the temporary negative impacts quickly.
Computerized biology, or how to control a population of cells with a computer
Researchers explain computer control of cellular processes. Hybrid experimental platforms combining microscopes and software are enabling researchers to interface living cells with control algorithms in real time. The research illustrates that these solutions make it possible to create new and easily reprogrammable behaviors of cell populations. This external control of living tissue would then become a formidable research tool for acquiring a detailed understanding of the biological role of certain proteins.
Advances to brain-interface technology provide clearer insight into visual system
Engineers and cognitive neuroscientists have demonstrated that a new high-density EEG can capture the brain's neural activity at a higher spatial resolution than ever before. This next-generation brain-interface technology is the first noninvasive, high-resolution system of its kind, providing higher density and coverage than any existing system. It has the potential to revolutionize future clinical and neuroscience research as well as brain-computer interfaces.
How can humans keep the upper hand on artificial intelligence?
Researchers have shown how human operators can maintain control over a system comprising several agents that are guided by artificial intelligence.
Swarm-based simulation strategy proves significantly shorter
How long do computer simulations need to run to be accurate? Speeding up processing time to elucidate highly complex study systems like the dynamics of biological molecules has been a common challenge. Now, scientists have developed a practical solution to the problem of saving time when using computer simulations that require bringing a complex system into a steady state of equilibrium and measuring its equilibrium properties.
Helping hands guide robots as they learn
Researchers help humans and robots collaborate by enabling real-time interactions that modify a robot's path to its goal. The study will help robots make the transition from structured factory floors to interactive tasks like rehabilitation, surgery and training programs in which environments are less predictable.
Ideal size for computer memory
Ultraprecise simulation of a computer storage technology known as CBRAM reveals its optimal geometry: an insulator roughly ten atoms thick sandwiched between two electrodes.
Medical note system could boost patients' engagement in their health care
Patients could benefit if they are invited to co-produce medical notes, called 'OurNotes,' with their doctors, rather than merely reading them. The practice may also benefit doctors by reducing time spent on documentation, suggests a new report.
Graphene nano 'tweezers' can grab individual biomolecules
Researchers have found yet another remarkable use for the wonder material graphene -- tiny electronic 'tweezers' that can grab biomolecules floating in water with incredible efficiency. This capability could lead to a revolutionary handheld disease diagnostic system that could be run on a smart phone.
Kids and screen time: Signs your child might be addicted
It's a familiar sight in the majority of young families: young children bent over a screen for hours, texting or gaming, lost in a digital world.
Monitoring security glass panes: Smart alarm system recognizes attempted break-ins
There is a huge selection of glass break detectors on the market. Although these detectors reliably trigger an alarm when window panes break, they do not register all other ways in which burglars can interfere with a pane. To counter this, researchers have created a new type of alarm system that recognizes any attempt to manipulate the window. It registers temperature changes in real time as well as vibrations caused by external interference with the glass, leaving burglars with no chance.
Robot learning improves student engagement
Online students who use the innovative robots feel more engaged and connected to the instructor and students in the classroom, the first-ever study of a pioneering robot-learning course shows.
Butterfly pattern emerges from quantum simulation
An international team demonstrates on Google's quantum chip a novel method to study quantum phases of matter.
Squeezing light into a tiny channel brings optical computing a step closer
By forcing light to go through a smaller gap than ever before, researchers have paved the way for computers based on light instead of electronics.
Designing a golden nanopill
Researchers have investigated the optical properties of complex plasmonic vesicles, which can navigate the bloodstream, and, when hit with a quick pulse of laser light, change shape to release their contents. The researchers used supercomputers to gain insights into the how plasmonic nanoparticles can be optimally designed and activated.
New software can verify someone's identity by their DNA in minutes
Researchers have developed a method to quickly and accurately identify people and cell lines from their DNA. The technology has a wide range of applications, but its most immediate use could be to flag mislabeled or contaminated cell lines in cancer experiments.
Computer analysis fills gaps in antibody blueprint
Antibodies defend our bodies against intruders. These molecules consist of proteins with attached sugars. However, the blueprint directing the processing of these sugars on the protein was not well understood until now. Scientists have now used computer analysis to complete this blueprint and confirmed their findings in the laboratory.
The future of electronics: New catalytic effect discovered for producing gallium oxide
Semiconducting oxides are a new class of materials that are currently enjoying great attention in the field of semiconductor technology. Gallium oxide is the archetypal example for its ability to handle extremely high voltages and its optical transparency in the deep ultraviolet region. Such components are based on very thin, ultrapure semiconductor layers produced by special deposition methods. Physicists have now drastically increased the yield of gallium oxide with a catalytic effect observed for the first time during crystal growth.
Superconducting qubit 3-D integration prospects bolstered by new research
Researchers have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. They have presented a new process for creating superconducting interconnects, which are compatible with existing superconducting qubit technology.
Smartphone addiction creates imbalance in brain, study suggests
Researchers have found an imbalance in the brain chemistry of young people addicted to smartphones and the internet.
HADES creates alternate reality to mislead hackers
Researchers have created alternative realities to mislead cyberintruders and cast doubt upon their disclosures.
With 'material robotics,' intelligent products won't even look like robots
Robots as inconspicuous as they are ubiquitous represent the vision of researchers in the new and burgeoning field of material robotics.
Wearable computing ring allows users to write words and numbers with thumb
With the whirl of a thumb, researchers have created technology that allows people to trace letters and numbers on their fingers and see the figures appear on a nearby computer screen. The system is triggered by a thumb ring outfitted with a gyroscope and tiny microphone. As wearers strum their thumb across the fingers, the hardware detects the movement.
Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more cost-effective genetic screening
Researchers are developing new techniques for faster, more cost-effective single-molecule DNA sequencing that could have transformative impacts on genetic screening.
Quantum simulators wield control over more than 50 qubits, setting new record
Scientists have used more than 50 interacting atomic qubits to mimic magnetic quantum matter, blowing past the complexity of previous demonstrations.
Big step forward for quantum computing
Researchers have developed a specialized quantum computer, known as a quantum simulator, which could be used to shed new light on a host of complex quantum processes, from the connection between quantum mechanics and material properties to investigating new phases of matter and solving complex real-world optimization problems.
Scaling deep learning for science
Using the Titan supercomputer, a research team has developed an evolutionary algorithm capable of generating custom neural networks that match or exceed the performance of handcrafted artificial intelligence systems. The research team's algorithm, called MENNDL (Multinode Evolutionary Neural Networks for Deep Learning), is designed to evaluate, evolve, and optimize neural networks for unique datasets in a matter of hours.
'Magnetoelectric' material shows promise as memory for electronics
Smartphones and computers wouldn't be nearly as useful without room for lots of apps, music and videos. Devices tend to store that information in two ways: through electric fields (think of a flash drive) or through magnetic fields (like a computer's spinning hard disk). Each method has advantages and disadvantages. However, in the future, our electronics could benefit from the best of each, say researchers.
A transistor of graphene nanoribbons
Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream could be reality in just a few years' time. Scientists have now produced nanotransistors from graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide.
The ultimate defense against hackers may be just a few atoms thick
The next generation of electronic hardware security may be at hand as researchers introduce a new class of unclonable cybersecurity security primitives made of a low-cost nanomaterial with the highest possible level of structural randomness. Randomness is highly desirable for constructing the security primitives that encrypt and thereby secure computer hardware and data physically, rather than by programming.
Child-proofing the Internet of Things
As many other current, and potentially future, devices can connect to the Internet researchers are keen to learn more about how so called IoT devices could affect the privacy and security of young people.
Dogs get the Hollywood treatment to make animal animations more realistic
Researchers are creating a library of movement data from different dog breeds, to make animal animations in films and video games more realistic.
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