Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
A twist connecting magnetism and electronic-band topology
Materials that combine topological electronic properties and quantum magnetism are of high current interest, for the quantum many-body physics that can unfold in them and for possible applications in electronic components. For one such material, physicists have now established the microscopic mechanism linking magnetism and electronic-band topology.
Capturing 3D microstructures in real time
Researchers have invented a machine-learning based algorithm for quantitatively characterizing material microstructure in three dimensions and in real time. This algorithm applies to most structural materials of interest to industry.
Experiments lead to slip law for better forecasts of glacier speed, sea-level rise
Backed by experimental data from a laboratory machine that simulates the huge forces involved in glacier flow, glaciologists have written an equation that accounts for the motion of ice that rests on the soft, deformable ground underneath unusually fast-moving parts of ice sheets. Models using the equation -- a 'slip law' -- could better predict how quickly glaciers are sliding, how much ice they're sending to oceans and how that would affect sea-level rise.
Turning cells into computers with protein logic gates
New artificial proteins have been created to function as molecular logic gates. Like their electronic counterparts in computers, these biochemical tools can be used to program the behavior of complex systems, such as gene regulation inside human T-cells. This new advance might improve the durability of future cell-based therapies.
Scientists see energy gap modulations in a cuprate superconductor
Scientists studying high-Tc superconductors have definitive evidence for the existence of a state of matter known as a pair density wave -- first predicted by theorists some 50 years ago. Their results show that this phase coexists with superconductivity in a well-known bismuth-based copper-oxide superconductor.
Models explain changes in cooking meat
Mathematicians show that by modelling meat as a fluid-saturated matrix of elastic proteins, which are deformed as the fluid moves, cooking behaviors can be simulated more precisely.
BESSY II: Ultra-fast switching of helicity of circularly polarized light pulses
At the BESSY II storage ring, a team has shown how the helicity of circularly polarized synchrotron radiation can be switched faster - up to a million times faster than before. They used an elliptical double-undulator and operated the storage ring in the so-called two-orbit mode. This is a special mode of operation that was only recently developed at BESSY II and provides the basis for fast switching.
Smartphone videos produce highly realistic 3D face reconstructions
Normally, it takes pricey equipment and expertise to create an accurate 3D reconstruction of someone's face. Now, researchers have pulled off the feat using video recorded on an ordinary smartphone. Shooting a continuous video of the front and sides of the face generates a dense cloud of data. A two-step process uses that data, with some help from deep learning algorithms, to build a digital reconstruction of the face.
AI finds 2D materials in the blink of an eye
A research team has introduced a machine-learning algorithm that can scan through microscope images to find 2D materials like graphene. This work can help shorten the time required for 2D material-based electronics to be ready for consumer devices.
To tune up your quantum computer, better call an AI mechanic
A new article outlines a way to teach an AI to make an interconnected set of adjustments to the quantum dots that could form the qubits in a quantum computer's processor. Precisely tweaking the dots is crucial for transforming them into properly functioning qubits, and until now the job had to be done painstakingly by human operators, requiring hours of work to create even a small handful of qubits for a single calculation.
AI as mediator: 'Smart' replies help humans communicate during pandemic
Daily life during a pandemic means social distancing and finding new ways to remotely connect with friends, family and co-workers. And as we communicate online and by text, artificial intelligence could play a role in keeping our conversations on track, according to new research.
New UC Davis research suggests parents should limit screen media for preschoolers
New research says screen time for young children should be limited.
Some mobile phone apps may contain hidden behaviors that users never see
A team of cybersecurity researchers has discovered that a large number of cell phone applications contain hardcoded secrets allowing others to access private data or block content provided by users. The study's findings: that the apps on mobile phones might have hidden or harmful behaviors about which end users know little to nothing.
Artificial intelligence can help some businesses but may not work for others
The temptation for businesses to use artificial intelligence and other technology to improve performance, drive down labor costs, and better the bottom line is understandable. But before pursuing automation that could put the jobs of human employees at risk, it is important that business owners take careful stock of their operations.
New electrically activated material could improve braille readers
Refreshable braille displays translate information from computer screens into raised characters. But this technology can cost thousands of dollars and is limited. Researchers now report an improved material that could take these displays to the next level, allowing those who are blind or who have low vision to more easily understand text and images, while lowering cost.
Extreme high-frequency signals enable terabits-per-second data links
Using the same technology that allows high-frequency signals to travel on regular phone lines, researchers tested sending extremely high-frequency, 200 GHz signals through a pair of copper wires. The result is a link that can move data at rates of terabits per second, significantly faster than currently available channels.
Not just for bones! X-rays can now tell us about soft tissues too
A new X-ray imaging technique could identify lesions and tumors before ultrasound or MRI can.
Quantum-entangled light from a vibrating membrane
Researchers recently entangled two laser beams through bouncing them off the same mechanical resonator, a tensioned membrane. This provides a novel way of entangling disparate electromagnetic fields, from microwave radiation to optical beams. Creating entanglement between optical and microwave fields would be a key step towards solving the challenge of sharing entanglement between two distant quantum computers operating in the microwave regime.
Potential for using fiber-optic networks to assess ground motions during earthquakes
A new study demonstrates the potential for using existing networks of buried optical fibers as an inexpensive observatory for monitoring and studying earthquakes.
'Smart' devices effective in reducing adverse outcomes of heart condition
A new study highlights the feasible use of mobile health (mHealth) devices to help with the screening and detection of a common heart condition.
New artificial intelligence system can empower medical professionals in diagnosing skin diseases
Researchers have developed a deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm that can accurately classify cutaneous skin disorders, predict malignancy, suggest primary treatment options, and serve as an ancillary tool to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of clinicians. With the assistance of this system, the diagnostic accuracy of dermatologists as well as the general public was significantly improved.
Tiny optical cavity could make quantum networks possible
Engineers have shown that atoms in optical cavities could be foundational to the creation of a quantum internet.
Artificial intelligence can speed up the detection of stroke
Scientists have created a fully automated method for acute ischemic lesion segmentation on brain MRIs and shows how artificial intelligence can reduce the work load of radiologists.
How at risk are you of getting a virus on an airplane?
Fair or not, airplanes have a reputation for germs. However, there are ways to minimize the risks. This research is especially used for air travel where there is an increased risk for contagious infection or disease, such as the recent worldwide outbreak of the coronavirus, which causes COVID-19 disease.
Heart attack on a chip: Scientists model conditions of ischemia on a microfluidic device
Researchers invented a microfluidic chip containing cardiac cells that is capable of mimicking hypoxic conditions following a heart attack - specifically when an artery is blocked in the heart and then unblocked after treatment. The chip can be used to monitor electrophysiological and molecular response of the cells to heart attack conditions in real time.
What are you looking at? 'Virtual' communication in the age of social distancing
When discussions occur face-to-face, people know where their conversational partner is looking and vice versa. With ''virtual'' communication due to COVID-19 and the expansive use of mobile and video devices, now more than ever, it's important to understand how these technologies impact communication. Where do people focus their attention? The eyes, mouth, the whole face? And how do they encode conversation? A first-of-its-kind study set out to determine whether being observed affects people's behavior during online communication.
Physicist develops new photon source for tap-proof communication
An international team has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.
Bubbles go with the flow
Scientists have developed a new computer simulation model that includes microbubble nucleation to explain the flow slippage of fluids inside pipes. This work may help improve the flow rate of viscous fluids in commercial applications, as in the energy industry.
Faster way to replace bad info in networks
Researchers have demonstrated a new model of how competing pieces of information spread in online social networks and the Internet of Things (IoT). The findings could be used to disseminate accurate information more quickly, displacing false information about anything from computer security to public health.
Neural networks facilitate optimization in the search for new materials
Sorting through millions of possibilities, a search for battery materials delivered results in five weeks instead of 50 years.
In politics and pandemics, trolls use fear, anger to drive clicks
A new CU Boulder study shows that Facebook ads developed and shared by Russian trolls around the 2016 election were clicked on nine times more than typical social media ads. The authors say the trolls are likely at it again, as the 2020 election approaches and the COVID-19 pandemic wears on.
Designing lightweight glass for efficient cars, wind turbines
A new machine-learning algorithm for exploring lightweight, very stiff glass compositions can help design next-gen materials for more efficient vehicles and wind turbines. Glasses can reinforce polymers to generate composite materials that provide similar strengths as metals but with less weight.
Quantum effect triggers unusual material expansion
New research may bring a whole new class of chemical elements into a materials science balancing act for designing alloys for aviation and other applications.
Interactive product labels require new regulations, study warns
Artificial intelligence will be increasingly used on labels on food and other products in the future to make them interactive, and regulations should be reformed now so they take account of new innovations, a study warns.
Artificial intelligence identifies optimal material formula
Nanostructured layers boast countless potential properties -- but how can the most suitable one be identified without any long-term experiments? A team has ventured a shortcut: using a machine learning algorithm, the researchers were able to reliably predict the properties of such a layer.
Quantum phenomenon governs organic solar cells
Researchers have discovered a quantum phenomenon that influences the formation of free charges in organic solar cells.
Concerns over 'exaggerated' study claims of AI outperforming doctors
Many studies claiming that artificial intelligence is as good as (or better than) human experts at interpreting medical images are of poor quality and are arguably exaggerated, posing a risk for the safety of 'millions of patients' warn researchers.
Video game experience, gender may improve VR learning
Students who used immersive virtual reality (VR) did not learn significantly better than those who used two more traditional forms of learning, but they vastly preferred the VR to computer-simulated and hands-on methods, a new study has found.
Making 3D cameras easier to use
Mechanical engineers are working to compress 3D camera files and automate focus and exposure settings.
Computational human cell reveals new insight on genetic information processing
Researchers have developed the first computational model of a human cell and simulated its behavior for 15 minutes -- the longest time achieved for a biological system of this complexity. In a new study, simulations reveal the effects of spatial organization within cells on some of the genetic processes that control the regulation and development of human traits and some human diseases.
How robots can help combat COVID-19
Can robots be effective tools in combating the COVID-19 pandemic? A group of leaders in the field of robotics say yes, and outline a number of examples. They say robots can be used for clinical care such as telemedicine and decontamination; logistics such as delivery and handling of contaminated waste; and reconnaissance such as monitoring compliance with voluntary quarantines.
How to break new records in the 200 meters
Usain Bolt's 200m record has not been beaten for ten years and Florence Griffith Joyner's for more than thirty years. And what about if the secret behind beating records was to use mathematics? Thanks to a mathematical model, researchers have proved that the geometry of athletic tracks could be optimized to improve records. They recommend to build shorter straights and larger radii in the future.
New mathematical model can more effectively track epidemics
As COVID-19 spreads worldwide, leaders are relying on mathematical models to make public health and economic decisions. A new model improves tracking of epidemics by accounting for mutations in diseases. Now, the researchers are working to apply their model to allow leaders to evaluate the effects of countermeasures to epidemics before they deploy them.
Elections: Early warning system to fight disinformation online
A new project is an effort to combat the rise of coordinated social media campaigns to incite violence, sew discord and threaten the integrity of democratic elections.
Modeling the human eye in a dish
Researchers have developed and validated a novel PITX2-eGFP hiPSC reporter line to model the development of periocular mesenchymal cells. These findings could help understand how the eye develops during embryogenesis and how it changes during disease processes.
Eye blinking on-a-chip
Researchers have developed a device that moves fluids over corneal cells similarly to the movement of tears over a blinking eye. The scientists hope their findings will help improve ophthalmic drug development and testing, and advance understanding of how blinking affects the corneal surface.
The physics that drives periodic economic downturns
A professor says that the way spilled milk spreads across the floor can explain why economic downturns regularly occur. Because the economic prosperity derived from new ideas or inventions follows the same S-curve as the spreading of a substance over an area, it inevitably loses its return on investment toward the end of its life cycle.
Molecule leads to breakthrough on how data is stored
Scientists have helped discover a molecule that could have a major impact on how data is stored and processed.
Mechanical forces shape bacterial biofilms' puzzling patterns
Belying their slimy natures, the sticky patches of bacteria called biofilms often form intricate, starburst-like patterns as they grow. Now, researchers have combined expertise in molecular biology, mechanical engineering and mathematical modeling to unravel the physical processes underlying these curious crinkles.
Coronavirus massive simulations completed on Frontera supercomputer
A coronavirus envelope all-atom computer model is being developed. The coronavirus model builds on success of all-atom infuenza virus simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations for the coronavirus model tests ran on up to 4,000 nodes, or about 250,000 of Frontera's processing cores. Full model can help researchers design new drugs, vaccines to combat the coronavirus.
System trains driverless cars in simulation before they hit the road
A simulation system invented to train driverless cars creates a photorealistic world with infinite steering possibilities, helping the cars learn to navigate a host of worse-case scenarios before cruising down real streets.
Framework for sharing clinical data in AI era
Clinical data should be treated as a public good when it is used for secondary purposes, such as research or the development of AI algorithms.
AI estimates unexploded bombs from Vietnam War
Researchers have used artificial intelligence to detect Vietnam War-era bomb craters in Cambodia from satellite images - with the hope that it can help find unexploded bombs. The new method increased true bomb crater detection by more than 160 percent over standard methods.
Novel MOF is potential next-gen semiconductor
A professor has demonstrated a novel double-helical metal organic framework architecture in a partially oxidized form that conducts electricity, potentially making it a next-generation semiconductor.
Small, precise and affordable gyroscope for navigating without GPS
A small, inexpensive and highly accurate gyroscope could help drones and autonomous cars stay on track without a GPS signal.
A key development in the drive for energy-efficient electronics
Scientists have made a breakthrough in the development of a new generation of electronics that will require less power and generate less heat. It involves exploiting the complex quantum properties of electrons -- in this case, the spin state of electrons.
Researchers observe ultrafast processes of single molecules for the first time
Researchers describe how a molecule moves in the protective environment of a quantum fluid.
Ultrathin but fully packaged high-resolution camera
The unique structures of biological vision systems in nature inspired scientists to design ultracompact imaging systems. Researchers have made an ultracompact camera that captures high-contrast and high-resolution images. Fully packaged with micro-optical elements such as inverted micro-lenses, multilayered pinhole arrays, and gap spacers on the image sensor, the camera boasts a field of view of 73°.
Seeing is believing: Visualizing differences in RNA biology between single cells
Researchers developed the novel and publicly available computational tool Millefy to visualize heterogeneity in RNA biology between single cells. Using mouse embryonic stem cells and cells from triple-negative breast cancer patients, they demonstrated the utility of Millefy to identify cell-to-cell variability in read coverage in scRNA-seq data. These findings could help understand disease formation and cancer biology. Millefy is publicly available to the scientific community.
Device brings silicon computing power to brain research and prosthetics
A new device enables researchers to observe hundreds of neurons in the brain in real-time. The system is based on modified silicon chips from cameras, but rather than taking a picture, it takes a movie of the neural electrical activity.
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