Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Breakthrough in 'distributed deep learning'
Computer scientists, using a divide-and-conquer approach that leverages the power of compressed sensing, have shown they can train the equivalent of a 100 billion-parameter distributed deep learning network on a single machine in less than 35 hours for product search and similar extreme classification problems.
Reorganizing a computer chip: Transistors can now both process and store information
Researchers have created a more feasible way to combine transistors and memory on a chip, potentially bringing faster computing.
Researcher designs headphones that warn pedestrians of dangers
To counter a growing public safety concern, researchers are designing an intelligent headphone system that warns pedestrians of imminent dangers.
Storing data in everyday objects
Researchers have discovered a new method for turning nearly any object into a data storage unit. This makes it possible to save extensive data in, say, shirt buttons, water bottles or even the lenses of glasses, and then retrieve it years later. The technique also allows users to hide information and store it for later generations. It uses DNA as the storage medium.
Demonstration of high-speed SOT-MRAM memory cell compatible with 300mm Si CMOS technology
Researchers have announced the demonstration of high-speed spin-orbit-torque magnetoresistive random access memory cell compatible with 300 mm Si CMOS technology.
Gamma-ray laser moves a step closer to reality
A physicist has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium. The calculations take scientists a step closer to realizing a gamma-ray laser.
Developing a digital twin of a vehicle
In the not too distant future, we can expect to see our skies filled with unmanned aerial vehicles delivering packages, maybe even people, from location to location. Researchers are developing 'digital twins' that combine computational models and machine learning to predict vehicle health and enable autonomous decision-making at the edge.
Mobile devices blur work and personal privacy raising cyber risks
Organizations aren't moving quickly enough on cyber security threats linked to the drive toward using personal mobile devices in the workplace.
A platform for stable quantum computing, a playground for exotic physics
Researchers have demonstrated the first material that can have both strongly correlated electron interactions and topological properties, which not only paves the way for more stable quantum computing but also an entirely new platform to explore the wild world of exotic physics.
Water animation gets easier
A team of computer science professors created a method to quickly resize animations of fluids without having to completely re-simulate the entire sequence.
Fusion by strong lasers
Nuclear physics usually involves high energies, as illustrated by experiments to master controlled nuclear fusion. One problem is how to overcome the strong electrical repulsion between atomic nuclei which requires high energies to make them fuse. But fusion could be initiated at lower energies with electromagnetic fields that are generated by state-of-the-art free electron lasers emitting X-ray light. Researchers describe how this could be done.
Scientists see defects in potential new semiconductor
A research team has reported seeing, for the first time, atomic scale defects that dictate the properties of a new and powerful semiconductor. The study shows a fundamental aspect of how the semiconductor, beta gallium oxide, controls electricity.
A robot and software make it easier to create advanced materials
A team of engineers has developed an automated way to produce polymers, making it much easier to create advanced materials aimed at improving human health. The innovation is a critical step in pushing the limits for researchers who want to explore large libraries of polymers, including plastics and fibers, for chemical and biological applications such as drugs and regenerative medicine through tissue engineering.
Your zip software can calculate the complex physical quantity called entropy
A new study proposes a radically simple and efficient way of calculating the complex physical quantity known as entropy -- and it probably exists on your own computer.
Like Pavlov's dog, this thermoplastic is learning a new trick: Walking
Researchers are 'training' pieces of plastic to walk under the command of light. The method developed is the first time a synthetic actuator 'learns' to do new 'tricks' based on its past experiences, without computer programming.
Siting cell towers needs careful planning
The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers. An engineering team considers the current understanding of health impacts and possible solutions, which indicate a 500-meter (one third of a mile) buffer around schools and hospitals may help reduce risk for vulnerable populations.
Successful instrument guidance through deep and convoluted blood vessel networks
Researchers have developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical MRI scanner to guide medical instruments through deeper and more complex vascular structures. The approach has been successfully demonstrated in-vivo.
Detecting solar flares, more in real time
Computers can learn to find flares and other events in vast streams of solar images to help forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study. The machine-learning technique searches satellite data for features significant for space weather. Changing conditions on the Sun can affect various technologies on Earth, blocking radio communications, damaging power grids, and diminishing navigation system accuracy.
Study sheds light on the peculiar 'normal' phase of high-temperature superconductors
Every character has a back story, and so do high-temperature superconductors, which conduct electricity with no loss at much higher temperatures than scientists once thought possible. Recent experiments have probed the normal state more accurately than ever before and discover an abrupt shift in the behavior of electrons in which they suddenly give up their individuality and behave like an electron soup.
Mass-producible, centimeter-scale metalens for VR, imaging
Metalenses -- flat surfaces that use nanostructures to focus light -- are poised to revolutionize everything from microscopy to cameras, sensors, and displays. But so far, most of the lenses have been about the size of a piece of glitter. While lenses this size work well for some applications, a larger lens is needed for low-light conditions, such as an imaging system onboard orbital satellites, and VR applications, where the lens needs to be larger than a pupil.
Virtual reality could help flu vaccination rates
Using a virtual reality simulation to show how flu spreads and its impact on others could be a way to encourage more people to get a flu vaccination, according to a new study.
Machine learning that works like a dream
Researchers have developed a machine learning algorithm that classifies the sleep stages of mice with record accuracy. This work may be used to greatly enhance the field of sleep research.
Fake news feels less immoral to share when we've seen it before
People who repeatedly encounter a fake news item may feel less and less unethical about sharing it on social media, even when they don't believe the information, research indicates.
Bending an organic semiconductor can boost electrical flow
Slightly bending semiconductors made of organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them and could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells, according to new research.
Carpentry Compiler helps woodworkers design objects that they can actually make
Researchers have created Carpentry Compiler, a digital tool that allows users to design woodworking projects. Once a project is designed, the tool creates optimized fabrication instructions based on the materials and equipment a user has available.
Through the eyes of animals
Humans are now closer to seeing through the eyes of animals, thanks to an innovative software framework.
Helping machines perceive some laws of physics
Researchers have designed a model that demonstrates an understanding of some basic 'intuitive physics' about how objects should behave. The model could be used to help build smarter artificial intelligence and, in turn, provide information to help scientists understand infant cognition.
A trick for taming terahertz transmissions
Researchers have invented a wireless communication receiver that can operate in the terahertz frequency band. By increasing the sensitivity 10,000-fold, they achieved the fastest Researchers invent a new receiver for terahertz-frequency radiation -- by implementing coherent detection, they achieve record transmission rates -- this work may lead to much faster wireless data speeds using less power.real-time error-free transmission rates ever recorded. This work may be crucial for next generation cell phone standards and novel remote sensors.
This 'fix' for economic theory changes everything from gambles to Ponzi schemes
Whether we decide to take out that insurance policy, buy Bitcoin, or switch jobs, many economic decisions boil down to a fundamental gamble about how to maximize our wealth over time. How we understand these decisions is the subject of a new perspective piece that aims to correct a foundational mistake in economic theory.
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Physicists have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors.
Potential solution to overheating mobile phones
Researchers have developed a revolutionary way to encode computational information without using electrical current. As a global first, this could lead to faster technological devices that could efficiently use energy without overheating.
New device enables battery-free computer input at the tip of your finger
Computer scientists have created a device for wearable computer input suitable for many situations, just by touching your fingertips together in different ways. The device, called Tip-Tap, is inexpensive and battery-free through the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to sense when fingertips touch. The device could, therefore, be added to disposable surgical gloves, allowing surgeons to access preoperative planning diagrams in an operating room.
Additive manufacturing and NI/TI metal bolster cooling technology
Scientists have developed a novel elastocaloric cooling material, comprised of a nickel (Ni)-titanium (Ti) alloy and sculpted using additive technology, that is highly efficient, eco-friendly and easily scaled-up for commercial use.
Toward more efficient computing, with magnetic waves
Researchers have devised a novel circuit design that enables precise control of computing with magnetic waves -- with no electricity needed. The advance takes a step toward practical magnetic-based devices, which have the potential to compute far more efficiently than electronics.
Researchers hope to use big data to make pipelines safer
Researchers look at the methodologies currently used by industry and academics to predict pipeline failure and their limitations. Researchers found that the existing academic literature and industry practices around pipeline failures need to further evolve around available maintenance data.
New way to identify, manipulate topological metals for spintronics
A recent study gives researchers an easier way of finding Weyl semimetals and manipulating them for potential spintronic devices.
A new theory for how black holes and neutron stars shine bright
Astrophysicists employed massive super-computer simulations to calculate the mechanisms that accelerate charged particles in extreme environments. They concluded their energization is powered by the interplay of chaotic motion and reconnection of super-strong magnetic fields.
A method with roots in AI uncovers how humans make choices in groups and social media
Using a mathematical framework with roots in artificial intelligence and robotics, researchers were able to uncover the process for how a person makes choices in groups. And, they also found they were able to predict a person's choice more often than more traditional descriptive methods.
Need to safeguard drones and robotic cars against cyber attacks
Researchers executed successful stealth attacks on real and simulated robotic vehicles, revealing vulnerabilities in the attack detection system most commonly used by such vehicles.
Building a better battery with machine learning
Researchers have turned to the power of machine learning and artificial intelligence to dramatically accelerate battery discovery.
Atomic-scale manufacturing method could enable ultra-efficient computers
As computers continue to infiltrate almost every aspect of modern life, their negative impact on the environment grows. According to recent estimates, the electricity required to power today's computers releases a total of more than 1 gigatonne of carbon emissions to the atmosphere each year. Now, researchers have developed a new manufacturing process that could enable ultra-efficient atomic computers that store more data and consume 100 times less power.
Artificial intelligence-based algorithm for intensive care of traumatic brain injury
A recent study presents the first artificial intelligence (AI) based algorithm that may be utilized in the intensive care unit for treating patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
Molecular eraser enables better data storage and computers for AI
Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven -- carbon-intensive -- world, according to new research.
How to measure inequality as 'experienced difference'
Researchers propose a novel twist on the widely used Gini coefficient -- a workhorse statistical measure for gauging the gap between haves and have-nots.
Smooth operator: When earnings management is a good thing
New research makes the case that 'smoothing the numbers' can be beneficial -- if you have the right team in place to handle the job.
Satellite broken? Smart satellites to the rescue
Scientists are developing robotic networks that can work independently but collaboratively on a common task. The goal? To make smart satellites that can repair other satellites in space.
New technology makes internet memes accessible for people with visual impairments
People with visual impairments use social media like everyone else, often with the help of screen reader software. But that technology falls short when it encounters memes, which don't include alternate text, or alt text, to describe what's depicted in the image. To counter this, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a method to automatically identify memes and apply prewritten templates to add descriptive alt text, making them intelligible via existing assistive technologies.
Hourglass-shaped silicon nanowire photodiodes with increased absorption of light developed
Scientists have proposed creating vertical silicone nanowires with high sensitivity by using silicone and semiconductor process.
From firearms to fish -- following patterns to discover causality
Mathematicians have successfully applied a new, pictorial approach to answer complex questions that puzzle analysts, such as, do media stories on firearm legislation influence gun sales? Cause-and-effect queries like this pop up in various fields, from finance to neuroscience, and objective methods are needed to deliver reliable answers. The team of researchers wrestled mathematical theory into quantifiable colorful maps called symbolic recurrence plots, and in this week's Chaos, they have proven the method's validity.
Milestone in quantum standardization
Researchers have developed a method that could pave the way to establishing universal standards for measuring the performance of quantum computers. The new method, called cycle benchmarking, allows researchers to assess the potential of scalability and to compare one quantum platform against another.
High amounts of screen time begin as early as infancy
Children's average daily time spent watching television or using a computer or mobile device increased from 53 minutes at age 12 months to more than 150 minutes at 3 years, according to a recent analysis. By age 8, children were more likely to log the highest amount of screen time if they had been in home-based childcare or were born to first-time mothers.
Wearable sweat sensor detects gout-causing compounds
Scientists have developed an easier way to mass-produce highly sensitive sweat sensors that can detect a variety of low-concentration compounds related to health conditions.
Novel tactile display using computer-controlled surface adhesion
Touch surfaces have become ubiquitous and enable users to intuitively manipulate the displayed contents with their fingers. One limitation is that they cannot represent various types of surface states of real objects such as texture. Now, a research team proposes StickyTouch, a novel tactile display that represents adhesive information on a surface. Adhesion control can be achieved by a temperature sensitive adhesive sheet whose temperature is locally controlled.
Ultrafast quantum simulations: A new twist to an old approach
Billions of tiny interactions occur between thousands of particles in every piece of matter in the blink of an eye. Simulating these interactions in their full dynamics was said to be elusive but has now been made possible.
New metallic material for flexible soft robots
A team has created a material that is half as light as paper and highly flexible but also shows enhanced characteristics for electrical conductivity, heat generation, fire-resistance, strain-sensing and is inherently capable of wireless communications.
Using artificial intelligence to determine whether immunotherapy is working
Currently, only about 20% of all cancer patients will actually benefit from costly immunotherapy. New research can now determine which ones are in that category, simply by analyzing previously unseen changes in patterns in CT scans taken when the lung cancer is first diagnosed compared to scans taken after the first 2-3 cycles of immunotherapy treatment.
Small, fast, and highly energy-efficient memory device inspired by lithium-ion batteries
Scientists have developed a new three-valued memory device inspired by solid lithium-ion batteries. The proposed device, which has an extremely low energy consumption, may be key for the development of more energy-efficient and faster random-access memories (RAMs), which are ubiquitous in modern computers.
Clear, conductive coating could protect advanced solar cells, touch screens
Researchers have improved on a transparent, conductive coating material, producing a tenfold gain in its electrical conductivity. When incorporated into a type of high-efficiency solar cell, the material increased the cell's efficiency and stability.
New method for using spin waves in magnetic materials
In order to miniaturize individual components of mobile phones or computers, for example, magnetic waves are currently regarded as promising alternatives to conventional data transmission functioning by means of electric currents. The physical basis for this is the spin of electrons in magnetic materials, which can be simplified as a rotation of electrons around their own axis. Physicists have developed a new approach that makes it easier to use spin waves.
Scientists discover surprising quantum effect in an exotic superconductor
Superconductors are already in use in various capacities, but newer iron-based superconductors have potential for future use. Researchers have studied what happens to the superconducting nature of these materials when impurities are added. The results shed light on how superconductivity behaves in these materials.
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