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Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.

Targeting the engine room of the cancer cell
Researchers have developed a highly innovative computational framework that can support personalized cancer treatment by matching individual tumors with the drugs or drug combinations that are most likely to kill them.
Algorithm speeds up process for analyzing 3D medical images
Researchers describe a machine-learning algorithm that can register brain scans and other 3D images more than 1,000 times more quickly using novel learning techniques.
Virtual reality headsets significantly reduce children's fear of needles
Almost anyone can relate to being afraid of needles and injections. A pilot study is the first to use a 3D virtual reality headset to test this tool as a distraction method in a pediatric setting. Children were given the choice of a roller coaster ride, helicopter ride or a hot-air balloon ride. Results show that anticipated versus actual pain and fear were reduced in 94.1 percent of the pediatric study subjects.
Better be safe than sorry: Economic optimization risks tipping of Earth system elements
Optimizing economic welfare without constraints might put human well-being at risk, a new climate study argues. While being successful in bringing down costs of greenhouse gas reductions for instance, the concept of profit maximization alone does not suffice to avoid the tipping of critical elements in the Earth system which could lead to dramatic changes of our lifelihood. The scientists use mathematical experiments to compare economic optimization to the governance concepts of sustainability and the more recent approach of a safe operating space for humanity. All of these turn out to have their benefits and deficits, yet the profit-maximizing approach shows the greatest likelihood of producing outcomes that harm people or the environment.
Study finds less corruption in countries where more women are in government
The new research is the most comprehensive study on this topic and looks at the implications of the presence of women in other occupations as including the shares of women in the labor force, clerical positions, and decision making positions such as the CEOs and other managerial positions.
Novel method for investigating pore geometry in rocks
In a fusion of mathematics and earth science, researchers have proposed a novel method for characterizing pore geometry in rock, based on persistence diagram analysis and a newly proposed parameter, the distance parameter H. The method represents heterogeneity and differences in rock type more effectively than the conventional method based on velocity distribution, without requiring costly numerical flow simulations, and the results are relatively stable with small changes in pore space.
This is what a stretchy circuit looks like
Researchers have made a new hybrid conductive material -- part elastic polymer, part liquid metal -- that can be bent and stretched at will. Circuits made with this material can take most two-dimensional shapes and are also non-toxic.
AI-driven ultrafast technology visually identifies cells without images
A team made of a scientific start-up company and academic researchers has invented a new cell identification and sorting system called Ghost Cytometry. The system combines a novel imaging technique with artificial intelligence to identify and sort cells with unprecedented high-throughput speed. The scientists leading the project hope that their method will be used to identify and sort cancer cells circulating in patients' blood, enable faster drug discovery, and improve the quality of cell-based medicine.
Human and artificial intelligence join forces to study complexity of the brain
A team of scientists has mapped the gene expression of each individual brain cell during aging, though they started small: with the brain of a fruit fly. Their 'cell atlas' provides unprecedented insights into the workings of the brain as it ages.
Quantum transfer at the push of a button
In the new quantum information technologies, fragile quantum states have to be transferred between distant quantum bits. Researchers have now realized such a quantum transmission between two solid-state qubits at the push of a button.
System allows surveillance cameras to 'talk' to the public through individual smartphones
Researchers have created a technology that allows public cameras to send personalized messages to people without compromising their privacy. The team developed a real-time end-to-end system called PHADE to allow this process, known as private human addressing.
Network theory links behavioral information flow with contained epidemic outbreaks
Over the last two decades, large-scale outbreaks of infectious diseases have resulted in high levels of morbidity, mortality, and overall economic burden for affected regions. As complex networks become increasingly popular tools of study, researchers are applying network theory to the field of epidemiology. Researchers now employ a concrete interplay model in quenched multiplex networks to study the connection between adaptive human behavior and epidemic spread.
Magnetic 3D-printed structures crawl, roll, and jump
Engineers have created soft, 3D-printed structures whose movements can be controlled with a wave of a magnet, much like marionettes without the strings. The menagerie of structures that can be magnetically manipulated includes a smooth ring that wrinkles up, a long tube that squeezes shut, a sheet that folds itself, and a spider-like 'grabber' that can crawl, roll, jump, and snap together fast enough to catch a passing ball.
Platform uses artificial intelligence to diagnose Zika and other pathogens
Method created in Brazil combines mass spectrometry analysis of blood serum with an algorithm that recognizes patterns associated with diseases from various origins. Adoption of machine learning technique allows the program to adapt itself to possible viral mutations.
E- textiles control home appliances with the swipe of a finger
Electronic textiles could allow a person to control household appliances or computers from a distance simply by touching a wristband or other item of clothing -- something that could be particularly helpful for those with limited mobility. Now researchers, have developed a new type of e-textile that is self-powered, highly sensitive and washable. A video of an e-wristband in action is available.
Automated robotic device for faster blood testing
Researchers have created an automated blood drawing and testing device that provides rapid results, potentially improving the workflow in hospitals and other health-related institutions to allow health care practitioners to spend more time treating patients.
Digital devices during family time could exacerbate bad behavior
Parents who spend a lot of time on their phones or watching television during family activities such as meals, playtime, and bedtime could influence their long-term relationships with their children. This is according to researchers who say so called 'technoference' can lead children to show more frustration, hyperactivity, whining, sulking or tantrums.
Computer program looks five minutes into the future
Scientists have developed software that can look minutes into the future: The program learns the typical sequence of actions, such as cooking, from video sequences. Then it can predict in new situations what the chef will do at which point in time.
Claiming credit for cyberattacks
The decision to acknowledge sponsorship of an attack is often linked to whether the attacker hopes to draw attention to a cause or to actually influence events, say political scientists.
Block play could improve your child's math skills, executive functioning
Semi-structured block play among preschool-age children has the potential to improve two skills - mathematics and executive functioning - critical to kindergarten readiness, according a new study.
Novel system mimics focus activity of the human eye
A new computational system effectively mimics the natural way the human eye corrects focus, specifically while viewing objects that are closer rather than farther away.
AI senses people's pose through walls
A new wireless smart-home system could help detect and monitor disease and enable the elderly to 'age in place.'
Multiple lasers could be replaced by a single microcomb
Every time we send an e-mail, a tweet, or stream a video, we rely on laser light to transfer digital information over a complex network of optical fibers. Dozens of high-performance lasers are needed to fill up the bandwidth and to squeeze in an increasing amount of digital data. Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb.
Squashing cyberbullying: New approach is fast, accurate
Researchers have designed a new technique for spotting nasty personal attacks on social media networks like Instagram.
New 28-GHz transceiver paves the way for future 5G devices
Scientists have designed and fabricated a tiny, but incredibly fast, reliable, and accurate 28-GHz transceiver meant for stable high-speed 5G communications. The fabricated transceiver trumps previous designs in various regards by taking a new approach for beam steering.
Extra vigilance required to combat growing sophistication of phishing attacks
Enterprising hackers can spoof the email address of a trusted friend, co-worker, or business and send forged emails to victims. With the right amount of social engineering, it's easy to obtain crucial and sensitive information from an unsuspecting recipient with a simple request.
Designing a better superconductor with geometric frustration
Study shows a magnet-controlled 'switch' in superconductor configuration provides unprecedented flexibility in managing the location of vortex filaments, altering the properties of the superconductor.
Silicon provides means to control quantum bits for faster algorithms
Quantum bits are now easier to manipulate for devices in quantum computing, thanks to enhanced spin-orbit interaction in silicon.
New computational tool predicts progression of metabolic syndrome in mice
Scientists have developed a new computational model that accurately predicts the gradual, long-term progression of metabolic syndrome in mice.
A nanotech sensor that turns molecular fingerprints into bar codes
A new system can detect and analyze molecules without the need for an infrared spectrometer. The system uses nanostructured metapixels to detect and then translate molecules' unique signatures into bar codes. The technology can be integrated into a compact sensor chip. It opens the door to large-scale image-based detection of materials using machine-learning technology.
Using mathematical approaches to optimally manage public debt
Large government debt negatively impacts long-term economic growth and the debt-to-gross domestic product (GDP) ratio is an important indicator of a country's financial leverage. Financial mathematicians propose a mathematical model that helps optimize and control the debt-to-GDP ratio.
Mobile health technology can potentially transform how patients manage heart disease risk
Mobile health technology has the potential to transform the way we prevent and manage heart disease, but there are unanswered questions about how to optimize this technology and maintain engagement with patients, according to a recent review.
Negative vs. positive social media experiences and depressive symptoms
Negative experiences on social media carry more weight than positive interactions when it comes to the likelihood of young adults reporting depressive symptoms, according to a new analysis. The finding may be useful for designing interventions and clinical recommendations to reduce the risk of depression.
Transparent, conductive films promising for developing flexible screens
Because silver is less brittle and more chemically resistant than materials currently used to make these electrodes, the new films could offer a high-performance and long-lasting option for use with flexible screens and electronics. The silver-based films could also enable flexible solar cells for installation on windows, roofs and even personal devices.
Single molecular insulator pushes boundaries of current state of the art
Researchers have synthesized the first molecule capable of insulating at the nanometer scale more effectively than a vacuum barrier. The team's insight was to exploit the wave nature of electrons. By designing an extremely rigid silicon-based molecule under 1 nm in length that exhibited comprehensive destructive interference signatures, they devised a novel technique for blocking tunnelling conduction. This new design principle has the potential to support continued miniaturization of classic transistors in the near term.
Options to optimize profit in broadband satellite constellations
Several large telecommunications companies have proposed plans to provide global broadband services by launching hundreds and even thousands of satellites into orbit. Although broadband for everyone sounds like a great idea, it also carries great financial risk, resulting in bankruptcy for some who've tried it. Recent research suggests a more cost-effective strategy using regional coverage and staged deployment.
New tools reveal prelude to chaos
Engineers have developed tools that mathematically describe the kinetics in a system right before it dissolves into randomness.
Simpler model gets to the point with proteins
Researchers introduce a new computational framework to predict the details of protein folding and other dynamic molecular processes.
Fungi-produced pigment shows promise as semiconductor material
Researchers are looking at a highly durable organic pigment, used by humans in artwork for hundreds of years, as a promising possibility as a semiconductor material.
New method enables high quality speech separation
Researchers have developed a novel audio-visual model for isolating and enhancing the speech of desired speakers in a video. The team's deep network-based model incorporates both visual and auditory signals in order to isolate and enhance any speaker in any video, even in challenging real-world scenarios, such as video conferencing, where multiple participants oftentimes talk at once, and noisy bars, which could contain a variety of background noise, music, and competing conversations.
Use artificial intelligence to identify, count, describe wild animals
Photographs that are automatically collected by motion-sensor cameras can be automatically described by deep neural networks. The result is a system that can automate animal identification for up to 99.3 percent of images while still performing at the same 96.6 percent accuracy rate of crowdsourced teams of human volunteers.
New algorithm keeps data fresh in wireless networks
Algorithm provides networks with the most current information available while avoiding data congestion.
Tax hurts investment in medical device research and development
New research shows companies cut funding for research and development in response to a tax imposed on medical devices as part of the Affordable Care Act. The study found the tax reduced R&D investment by $34 million and also negatively affected sales revenue, gross margins and earnings.
Transferring quantum information using sound
Scientists have found a new way to transfer quantum information. They propose using tiny mechanical vibrations. The atoms are coupled with each other by 'phonons' -- the smallest quantum mechanical units of vibrations or sound waves.
Beyond superstition to general causality: AI nutcracker for real-world problems
Real-world problems in economics and public health can be notoriously hard nuts to find causes for. Often, multiple causes are suspected but large datasets with time-sequenced data are not available. Previous models could not reliably analyze these challenges. Now researchers have tested the first Artificial Intelligence model to identify and rank many causes in real-world problems without time-sequenced data, using a multi-nodal causal structure and Directed Acyclic Graphs.
Detecting the birth and death of a phonon
Physicists have developed a new technique to probe elementary quantum excitations of atomic vibrations inside a diamond crystal under ambient conditions. The technique uses ultra-short laser pulses and detectors sensitive to single photons.
Rules about technology use can undermine academic achievement
Parents who restrict their children's use of new media technologies may be acting counterproductively in the long run, particularly if they invoke afterschool homework time as the reason. Their children's scholastic achievements at college lag behind the academic performance of same-age peers, a new study shows.
Mergers are good news for investors
Shareholder value and market share improve when companies merge, confirms a new study.
Physicists use terahertz flashes to uncover state of matter hidden by superconductivity
A research team has developed a new quantum switching scheme that gives them access to new and hidden states of matter. If researchers can learn to control the hidden state, further stabilize it and determine whether it's suitable for quantum logic operations, it could allow researchers to use it for quantum computing and other practical functions.
Wireless system can power devices inside the body
Researchers have developed a new way to power and communicate with devices implanted deep within the human body. Such devices could be used to deliver drugs, monitor conditions inside the body, or treat disease by stimulating the brain with electricity or light.
Spooky quantum particle pairs fly like weird curveballs
Some particles that can be in two places at the same time and are not just particles but also waves, in this case, fermions, appear to move in even weirder ways than previously thought. Theoretical physicists applied extreme computing power for a week to predict the movements of fermions by including quantum optics, or light-like, ideas in their mathematical, theoretical modeling.
Findings could spur energy-saving electronics, quantum computing
Physicists has demonstrated a way to conduct electricity between transistors without energy loss, opening the door to low-power electronics and, potentially, quantum computing that would be far faster than today's computers. Their findings involved using a special mix of materials with magnetic and insulator properties.
'Carbon bubble' coming that could wipe trillions from the global economy
Unlike current expectations, new research suggests that the prospects of the fossil-fuel industry are not bright, and that its demise may have profound economic and geopolitical consequences. Relying on ground breaking modelling techniques, researchers show that the consumption of fossil fuels will slow down or decline in the near future, as a result of ongoing technological change, potentially exacerbated by new climate policies.
New way to make light interact with matter
Researchers have devised a new way to make light interact with matter. Reducing the wavelength of light could allow it to be absorbed or emitted by a semiconductor, their study suggests.
Future robots need no motors
Engineers have created a novel actuating material that can be powered by visible light, electricity, and other stimuli, and which may replace traditional bulky motors and pneumatic actuators with ones similar to mammalian skeletal muscles in the future.
Designer materials with completely random structures might enable quantum computing
Topological randomness may be the answer for lossless electronics and making the nuts and bolts of quantum computers. Complete randomness in the structures of superconductors and insulators could lower the requirements of pristine crystalline ordering -- and make them more accessible to industry.
New algorithm fuses quality and quantity in satellite imagery
Using a new algorithm, researchers may have found the solution to an age-old dilemma plaguing satellite imagery -- whether to sacrifice high spatial resolution in the interest of generating images more frequently, or vice versa. The team's new tool eliminates this trade-off by fusing high-resolution and high-frequency satellite data into one integrated product, and can generate 30-meter daily continuous images going back to the year 2000.
Inadequate sleep could cost countries billions
Inadequate sleep is a public health problem affecting more than one in three adults worldwide. A new study suggests that insufficient sleep could also have grave economic consequences.
AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles
Researchers have used a computational neural network, a form of artificial intelligence, to 'learn' how a nanoparticle's structure affects the way it scatters light, based on thousands of examples. The approach may help physicists tackle research problems in ways that could be orders of magnitude faster than existing methods.
Breakthrough in controlling DNA-based robots
Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand -- and much faster than recently possible.

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