Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Beyond Queen's stomp-stomp-clap: Concerts and computer science converge in new research
New research suggests how to get large numbers of people engaged in participating during a live performance like a concert -- or a lecture -- and channel that energy for a sustained time period.
Translating university lectures in multiple languages
Researchers report a new machine translation system that outputs subtitles in multiple languages for archived university lectures. As countries like China and Japan expand their international student cohort, this system could relax language demands and allow the students to study in their mother tongue.
Mysterious Majorana quasiparticle is now closer to being controlled for quantum computing
Using a new approach, researchers detected the elusive Majorana quasiparticle, notable for being its own antiparticle and for its potential as the basis for a robust quantum computing system, in a device built from a superconductor, small magnetic elements, and a topological insulator.
People using third-party apps to analyze personal genetic data
A new study finds that people who are initially motivated to learn about their ancestry with third-party personal genetics services frequently end up engaging with health interpretations of their genetic data, too.
New model more accurately predicts choices in classic decision-making task
A new mathematical model that predicts which choices people will make in the Iowa Gambling Task, a task used for the past 25 years to study decision-making, outperforms previously developed models.
Early-season hurricanes result in greater transmission of mosquito-borne infectious disease
The timing of a hurricane is one of the primary factors influencing its impact on the spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as West Nile Virus, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, according to new research.
Genes for Good project harnesses Facebook to reach larger, more diverse groups of people
The Genes for Good project has engaged more than 80,000 Facebook users, collected 27,000 DNA spit-kits, and amassed a trove of health survey data on a more diverse group of participants than has previously been possible.
The whisper of schizophrenia: Machine learning finds 'sound' words predict psychosis
Automated analysis of the two language variables -- more frequent use of words associated with sound and speaking with low semantic density, or vagueness -- can predict whether an at-risk person will later develop psychosis with 93 percent accuracy.
Bitcoin causing carbon dioxide emissions comparable to Las Vegas or Hamburg
The use of Bitcoin causes around 22 megatons in carbon dioxide emissions annually -- comparable to the total emissions of cities such as Las Vegas or Hamburg.
People with mobility issues set to benefit from wearable devices
Researchers are working on a project to develop wearable rehabilitative devices that can help disabled people sit, stand and walk in comfort.
Making the 'human-body Internet' more effective
Human body communication (HBC) uses the human body to transmit power and data, much like the internet. Because it's a smaller and closed network, it has the benefit of being more secure and power efficient. In a recent study, a group of Japanese researchers used an equivalent circuit model to examine how different parameters affect HBC transmission characteristics.
Financial vulnerability may discourage positive negotiation strategies
People who feel financially vulnerable may be prone to believing incorrectly their success in negotiations must come at the expense of the other party, leading them to ignore the potential for more cooperative and mutually beneficial options.
The Wikipedia gender gap
In a recent study, researchers interviewed women 'Wikipedians' to examine the lack of female and non-binary editors in Wikipedia.
Discovery of field-induced pair density wave state in high temperature superconductors
Superconductors are quantum materials that are perfect transmitters of electricity and electronic information. Presently, cuprates are the best candidate for highest temperature superconductivity at ambient pressure, operating at approximately -120 °C. Improving this involves understanding competing phases, one of which has now been identified.
Algorithm tells robots where nearby humans are headed
A new tool for predicting a person's movement trajectory may help humans and robots work together in close proximity.
Could playing computer games improve your peripheral vision?
Researchers have found a significant improvement in the peripheral awareness of people who played computer games specially designed around using peripheral vision. This finding opens up the possibility that these types of games can be used to help improve players' performance in team sports - so they can spot team-mates quicker - or to help them to identify potential hazards at the side of their vision.
Why fears over smartphone 'addiction' are based on flawed evidence
Researchers say fears over smartphone 'addiction' are based on flawed evidence. Surveys are often used to understand how people use their smartphone, but these are poorly related to actual smartphone use when measured with an app. This means that existing evidence suggesting that screen time is 'addictive' cannot be used to justify any change of policy. High smartphone usage has been linked to anxiety and depression but there is insufficient evidence to support these conclusions.
An innovative electron microscope overturning common knowledge of 88 years history
In conventional electron microscopes, performing atomic-resolution observations of magnetic materials is particularly difficult because high magnetic fields are inevitably exerted on samples inside the magnetic objective lens. Newly developed magnetic objective-lens system provides a magnetic-field-free environment at the sample position. This enables direct, atom-resolved imaging of magnetic materials such as silicon steels. This novel electron microscope is expected to be extensively used for the research and development of advanced magnetic materials.
Novel de-noising method generates sharper photorealistic images faster
A global team of computer scientists has developed an innovative method for producing higher-quality images and scene designs in much less time by using a deep-learning-based approach that considerably cuts the noise in images.
Behind the magic: Making moving photos a reality
Researchers have figured out how to take a person from a 2D photo or a work of art and make them run, walk or jump out of the frame. The system also allows users to view the animation in three dimensions using augmented reality tools.
Engineers design nanostructured diamond metalens for compact quantum technologies
By finding a certain kind of defect inside a block of diamond and fashioning a pattern of nanoscale pillars on the surface above it, engineering researchers can now control the shape of individual photons emitted by the defect. Because those photons carry information about the spin state of an electron, such a system could be used as the basis for compact quantum technologies.
First cyber agility framework to train officials developed to out-maneuver cyber attacks
To help train government and industry organizations on how to prevent cyberattacks scientists developed the first framework to score the agility of cyber attackers and defenders.
Education trumps age-structure in terms of providing a demographic dividend
The relationship between population changes and economic growth has been a controversial topic among demographers for many years. A study now challenges the dominant view that fertility decline and changes in age structure are key drivers of economic growth.
Researchers 'stretch' the ability of 2D materials to change technology
Two-dimensional (2D) materials -- as thin as a single layer of atoms -- have intrigued scientists with their flexibility, elasticity, and unique electronic properties. Now, researchers have combined 2D materials with oxide materials in a new way, using a transistor-scale device platform, to fully explore the capabilities of these changeable 2D materials to transform electronics, optics, computing and a host of other technologies.
Antennas of flexible nanotube films an alternative for electronics
Metal-free antennas made of thin, strong, flexible carbon nanotube films are as efficient as common copper antennas, according to researchers.
Machine learning approach for low-dose CT imaging yields superior results
Machine learning has the potential to vastly advance medical imaging, particularly computerized tomography (CT) scanning, by reducing radiation exposure and improving image quality.
Settling the debate: Solving the electronic surface states of samarium hexaboride
Researchers show that samarium hexaboride is a topological insulator, which allows electrons to flow only along its exterior surface. Together with its strong electron correlations, this material has potential to be used in future spintronic quantum devices that utilize the spins of individual electrons.
AI tool helps radiologists detect brain aneurysms
Radiologists improved their diagnoses of brain aneurysms with the help of an artificial intelligence algorithm developed by medical experts and computer scientists.
Somebody's watching you: The surveillance of self-driving cars
As self-driving cars develop further, they will play a much larger role in the digital economy as car companies and others harness personalized customer information through geospatial and navigation technologies, according to a new study.
How genes interact to build tissues and organisms
Scientists have developed a new computational tool to infer global, large-scale regulatory networks, from healthy and pathological organs. The researchers were able to pinpoint genes relevant to organ function and potential drivers of diseases.
Mathematics of plant leaves
A Japanese plant species with a peculiar leaf pattern recently revealed unexpected insight into how almost all plants control their leaf arrangement.
Decoding Beethoven's music style using data science
What makes Beethoven sound like Beethoven? Researchers have completed a first analysis of Beethoven's writing style, applying statistical techniques to unlock recurring patterns.
How artificial intelligence can help detect rare diseases
In a study of 679 patients with 105 different rare diseases, scientists have shown that artificial intelligence can be used to diagnose rare diseases more efficiently and reliably. A neural network automatically combines portrait photos with genetic and patient data.
New computer attack mimics user's keystroke characteristics and evades detection
Cyber security researchers have developed a new attack called "Malboard." Malboard evades several detection products that are intended to continuously verify the user's identity based on personalized keystroke characteristics.
Hackproofing smart meters
Cybersecurity researchers have developed an automated program aimed at foiling smart meter hacking and boosting security in the smart grid.
Most-detailed-ever simulations of black hole solve longstanding mystery
Scientists have constructed the most detailed, highest resolution simulation of a black hole to date. The simulation found that the inner-most region of an accretion disk aligns with its black hole's equator, confirming a 1975 prediction.
It pays to be free: No-cost products garner strong word-of-mouth recommendations
Consumers who get a web-based product or mobile app for free are more likely to give it a word-of-mouth boost than a product they buy, suggesting they feel 'one good turn deserves another.'
Bees can link symbols to numbers, study finds
We know bees get the concept of zero and can do basic math. Now researchers have discovered they may also be capable of connecting symbols to numbers. It's a finding that sheds new light on how numerical abilities may have evolved over millennia and even opens new possibilities for communication between humans and other species.
Autonomous boats can target and latch onto each other
Researchers have given new capabilities to their fleet of robotic boats that let them target and clasp onto each other, and keep trying if they fail.
Video gamers design brand new proteins
By encoding their specialized knowledge into a computer game, researchers enabled citizen scientists to successfully design synthetic proteins for the first time.
Remaining switched on to silicon-based electronics
It has been assumed that we are approaching the performance limits of silicon-based power electronics. Researchers have now challenged this belief by developing a miniaturized silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) that overcame previous performance limits. Their miniaturized IGBT displayed stable switching at an operating voltage of just 5 V, and the power consumption of its drive circuits was only 10% of that of a traditional IGBT operating at 15 V.
How the Internet may be changing the brain
An international team of researchers has found the Internet can produce both acute and sustained alterations in specific areas of cognition, which may reflect changes in the brain, affecting our attentional capacities, memory processes, and social interactions.
Deep learning techniques teach neural model to 'play' retrosynthesis
Chemical engineers have trained a neural network model to plan synthetic routes to any target molecule, optimizing user-specified objectives such as cost, time, and sustainability.
Civility still matters to some in cyberspace
In the online world, where incivility is all too common, new research found that being polite is golden, at least when individuals who pose questions online get to choose the ''best answer.''
Scientists call on funders to make research freely available immediately
Scientific research usually takes months to be published by academic journals, and once it is, many of the papers can only be read by scientists from wealthy institutes that subscribe to the journals. Over the years, there have been various attempts to make research more widely available, but most papers remain behind paywalls and scientists complain that the peer review process at journals now takes longer than ever.
Researchers develop superconducting quantum refrigerator
Researchers have harnessed superconductivity to conceive of a quantum refrigerator that could cool atoms to nearly absolute zero temperatures.
How chronic inflammation may drive down dopamine and motivation
A new computational method will allow scientists to measure the effects of chronic inflammation on energy availability and effort-based decision-making. The method may yield insights into how chronic, low-grade inflammation contributes to motivational impairments in some cases of depression, schizophrenia and other medical disorders.
Mathematicians work out how to predict success in show business
Mathematicians have found a way to predict whether an actor's career has peaked or if their most successful days lie ahead.
Enabling transportation agencies to automate traffic monitoring
Scientists announce the release of ActiveVision, a machine vision tool that transportation agencies can use to autonomously detect and report traffic condition changes. ActiveVision's algorithms process camera data to provide real-time information on weather conditions and other anomalies affecting congestion. Designed for integration with intelligent transportation systems (ITS), ActiveVision can be configured with existing traffic cameras to analyze roadway conditions with no human monitoring required.
2D crystals conforming to 3D curves create strain for engineering quantum devices
Scientists have explored how atomically thin two-dimensional crystals can grow over three-dimensional objects and how the curvature of those objects can stretch and strain the crystals. The findings point to a strategy for engineering strain directly during the growth of atomically thin crystals to fabricate single photon emitters for quantum information processing.
Key obstacles to scaling up DNA data storage
Researchers have developed new techniques for labeling and retrieving data files in DNA-based information storage systems, addressing two of the key obstacles to widespread adoption of DNA data storage technologies.
A more accurate, low-cost 39 GHz beamforming transceiver for 5G communications
Researchers present a 39 GHz transceiver with built-in calibration for fifth-generation (5G) applications. The advantages to be gained include better quality communications as well as cost-effective scalability.
In-situ measurement of 3D protein structure inside living eukaryotic cells
Nuclear magnetic resonance measurement and state-of-the-art computational science reveal protein structures in higher eukaryotic cells.
Do video games with shooting affect kids' behavior with real guns?
A randomized clinical trial in a university laboratory examined the effects of video games with weapons on children's behavior when they found a real gun.
Hyphens in paper titles harm citation counts and journal impact factors, study claims
According to a new study, the presence of simple hyphens in the titles of academic papers adversely affects the citation statistics, regardless of the quality of the articles. [Editor's note: please see the end of this post for a response from the Web of Science Group.]
Laser technique could unlock use of tough material for next-generation electronics
Researchers used a laser technique to permanently stress graphene into a structure that allows the flow of electric current, which is necessary for the material to be useful for next-generation electronics.
Physicists 'teleport' logic operation between separated ions
Physicists have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks.
'Slothbot' takes a leisurely approach to environmental monitoring
For environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, infrastructure maintenance and certain security applications, slow and energy efficient can be better than fast and always needing a recharge. That's where 'SlothBot' comes in.
Combing through someone's phone could lead to end of relationship -- or not
For some people, the thought of their partner, friend or colleague snooping through their phone, reading their texts and emails, is an automatic deal breaker. However, some relationships can survive the snooping, a new study examining the motivations behind phone snooping has found.
Beyond 1 and 0: Engineers boost potential for creating successor to shrinking transistors
Scientists offer a solution to the fast-approaching physical minimum for transistor size: a multi-value logic transistor based on zinc oxide, capable of two stable intermediate states between 0 and 1.
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