Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Lasers enable engineers to weld ceramics, no furnace required
Smartphones that don't scratch or shatter. Metal-free pacemakers. Electronics for space and other harsh environments. These could all be made possible thanks to a new ceramic welding technology. The process works in ambient conditions and uses less than 50 watts of laser power, making it more practical than current ceramic welding methods that require heating the parts in a furnace.
Materials scientists build a synthetic system with compartments like real cells
Polymer chemists and materials scientists have achieved some notable advances that mimic Nature, but one of the most common and practical features of cells has so far been out of reach -- intracellular compartmentalization. Now researchers tell how they take advantage of differences in electrical charge to create an 'all aqueous,' water-in-water construct that achieves compartmentalization in a synthetic system.
Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs
A new computer model that captures the dynamics of the red blood cell sickling process could help in evaluating drugs for treating sickle cell disease.
New technique could streamline design of intricate fusion device
Stellarators, twisty machines that house fusion reactions, rely on complex magnetic coils that are challenging to design and build. Now, a physicist has developed a mathematical technique to help simplify the design of the coils.
Understanding the animal brain could help robots wash your dishes
Neuroscientists show how evolution and animal brains can be a rich source of inspiration for machine learning, especially to help AI tackle some enormously difficult problems, like doing the dishes.
Self-folding 'Rollbot' paves the way for fully untethered soft robots
The majority of soft robots today rely on external power and control, keeping them tethered to off-board systems or rigged with hard components. Now, researchers have developed soft robotic systems, inspired by origami, that can move and change shape in response to external stimuli, paving the way for fully untethered soft robots.
Physicists create world's smallest engine
The research explains how random fluctuations affect the operation of microscopic machines like this tiny motor. In the future, such devices could be incorporated into other technologies to recycle waste heat and thus improve energy efficiency.
New way to make micro-sensors may revolutionize future of electronics
Researchers have found a way to improve the performance of tiny sensors that could have wide-reaching implications for electronic devices we use every day.
New brain map could improve AI algorithms for machine vision
Neuroscientists have published an updated view on the primate brain's visual system organization. They found that parts of the primate visual system may work differently than previously thought.
Customers feel more accomplished when progress tracked in round numbers
The study shows reaching a goal expressed in round numbers results in higher levels of customer satisfaction. That was particularly true when the final goal was still distant. Hitting intermediate targets expressed as round numbers increased customers' feeling of progress at low levels of achievement.
Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts
Researchers have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).
New tools to minimize risks in shared, augmented-reality environments
Security researchers have created ShareAR, a toolkit that lets developers build collaborative and interactive features into AR apps without sacrificing their users' privacy and security.
Physicists use light flashes to discover, control new quantum states of matter
Scientists are developing new tools and techniques to access new states of matter hidden within superconducting and other complex materials. Harnessing these exotic states and their unique properties could lead to better computing, communicating and data storing technologies.
Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots
The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications. This is driving a need for alternatives that can both prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of excessive and life-threatening bleeding. A new biocompatible lab-on-a-chip could help accelerate the discovery and development of new anti-clotting therapies, with automated processes that can achieve in a few minutes what could take days in a full-sized lab.
How ergonomic is your warehouse job? Soon, an app might be able to tell you
Researchers at the UW have used machine learning to develop a new system that can monitor factory and warehouse workers and tell them how ergonomic their jobs are in real time.
New artificial compound eye could improve 3D object tracking
A newly created biologically inspired compound eye is helping scientists understand how insects use their compound eyes to sense an object and its trajectory with such speed. The compound eye could also be used with a camera to create 3D location systems for robots, self-driving cars and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Wired for sound: A third wave emerges in integrated circuits
A research renaissance into chip-based control of light-sound interactions could transform our 5G networks, satellite communications and defence industries. These interactions, known as Brillouin scattering, are set to underpin new designs in microchips and push our theoretical understanding of fundamental science.
Heat shield just 10 atoms thick to protect electronic devices
Atomically thin materials could create heat-shields for cell phones or laptops that would protect people and temperature-sensitive components and make future electronic gadgets even more compact.
New tool makes web browsing easier for the visually impaired
Researchers have developed a new voice assistant that allows people with visual impairments to get web content as quickly and as effortlessly as possible from smart speakers and similar devices.
Climate change to shrink economies of rich, poor, hot and cold countries alike unless Paris Agreement holds
Detrimental economic effects of global warming are likely to go beyond those being discussed in policy circles -- particularly for wealthier nations, say researchers. Study suggests that 7% of global GDP will disappear by 2100 as a result of business-as-usual carbon emissions -- including over 10% of incomes in both Canada and the United States.
Facial recognition technique could improve hail forecasts
The same artificial intelligence technique typically used in facial recognition systems could help improve prediction of hailstorms and their severity, according to a new study.
Nylon as a building block for transparent electronic devices?
Scientists have solved a four decade long challenge of producing very thin nylon films that can be used for instance in electronic memory components. The thin nylon films are several 100 times thinner than human hair and could thus be attractive for applications in bendable electronic devices or for electronics in clothing.
Using Wall Street secrets to reduce the cost of cloud infrastructure
Researchers have developed a 'risk-aware' model that improves the performance of cloud-computing infrastructure used across the globe.
Wearable sensors detect what's in your sweat
A team of scientists is developing wearable skin sensors that can detect what's in your sweat. In a new article, the team describes a sensor design that can be rapidly manufactured using a 'roll-to-roll' processing technique that essentially prints the sensors onto a sheet of plastic like words on a newspaper. The sensors can provide real-time measurements of sweat rate, and electrolytes and metabolites in sweat.
Wireless sensors that stick to the skin to track our health
Engineers have developed experimental stickers that pick up physiological signals emanating from the skin, then wirelessly beam these health readings to a receiver clipped onto clothing. It's all part of a system called BodyNet.
Optofluidic chip with nanopore 'smart gate' developed for single molecule analysis
A new chip-based platform integrates nanopores and optofluidic technology with a feedback-control circuit to enable an unprecedented level of control over individual molecules and particles on a chip for high-throughput analysis.
Newfound superconductor material could be the 'silicon of quantum computers'
Newly discovered properties in the compound uranium ditelluride show that it could prove highly resistant to one of the nemeses of quantum computer development -- the difficulty with making such a computer's memory storage switches, called qubits, function long enough to finish a computation before losing the delicate physical relationship that allows them to operate as a group. This relationship, called quantum coherence, is hard to maintain because of disturbances from the surrounding world.
Are Siri and Alexa making us ruder?
Is the way we bark out orders to digital assistants like Siri, Alexa and Google Assistant making us less polite? Prompted by growing concerns, two information systems researchers decided to find out.
Better food and faster analysis of blood tests
Researchers have figured out how to use deep learning to speed up the analysis of gas chromatographic data. Because this type of analysis is used in many parts of society, the new method will have a major impact on quality, efficiency and cost when examining various data -- from blood tests, to the fermentation of cheese.
Data assimilation method offers improved hurricane forecasting
Operational models for severe weather forecasting predicted Hurricane Harvey would become a Category 1 hurricane in 2017. Instead, it became a massive Category 4 just before it made landfall, tying Hurricane Katrina for the costliest hurricane on record.
Financial abuse of older adults by family members more common than scams by strangers
A new analysis of resource line calls identifies financial abuse of older adults by family members as more common than scams by strangers.
New 3D interconnection technology for future wearable bioelectronics
Scientists developed stretchable metal composites and 3D printed them on soft substrates at room temperature. By enabling ever-slimmer 3D interconnects, this study can help to revolutionize the physical appearance of smart gadgets, in addition to reinforcing their technical functions.
Router guest networks lack adequate security, experts say
While many organizations and home networks use a host and guest network on the same router hardware to increase security, a new study indicates that routers from well-known manufacturers are vulnerable to cross-router data leaks through a malicious attack on one of the two separated networks.
A society's cultural practices shape the structure of its social networks
Biologists used mathematical models to show that societies that favor generalists, who have a wide range of skills, are less well-connected than those societies that favor specialists, who are highly skilled at a smaller number of traits. The findings have implications for improving information flow and problem-solving in settings from business to academia.
Researchers use blockchain to drive electric-vehicle infrastructure
Researchers have integrated the use of blockchain into energy systems, a development that could result in expanded charging infrastructure for electric vehicles.
School savings accounts can dry up in 'financial deserts'
Children's savings accounts (CSAs), offered by elementary schools throughout San Francisco and in schools across the nation, were introduced to boost college-going rates, limit student debt and foster equal opportunity for low-income children. However, scientists find that geography -- particularly in neighborhoods that lack brick-and-mortar banks and credit unions -- may play a key role in how much families with CSAs actually save for college.
AI used to test evolution's oldest mathematical model
Researchers have used artificial intelligence to make new discoveries, and confirm old ones, about one of nature's best-known mimics, opening up whole new directions of research in evolutionary biology.
A miniature stretchable pump for the next generation of soft robots
Scientists have developed a tiny pump that could play a big role in the development of autonomous soft robots, lightweight exoskeletons and smart clothing. Flexible, silent and weighing only one gram, it is poised to replace the rigid, noisy and bulky pumps currently used.
Amateur investors fail to diversify and are better off choosing stocks at random
A new study has found that less-experienced investors are failing to diversify -- and could be putting themselves at serious financial risk. The effect is so pronounced that many amateur investors would be better off choosing stocks at complete random.
Attackers could be listening to what you type
You likely know to avoid suspicious emails to keep hackers from gleaning personal information from your computer. But a new study suggests that it's possible to access your information in a much subtler way: by using a nearby smart phone to intercept the sound of your typing.
App allows inspectors to find gas pump skimmers faster
Computer scientists have developed an app that allows state and federal inspectors to detect devices that steal consumer credit and debit card data at gas pumps. The devices, known as skimmers, use Bluetooth to transmit the data they steal.
Emotional journey of a digital detox while traveling
New research reveals the emotional journey that tourists go on when they disconnect from technology and social media while travelling. The study investigated how engaging in digital-free tourism impacted travelers' holiday experiences. It involved losing access to technologies such as mobile phones, laptops, tablets, the Internet, social media and navigation tools.
Schrödinger's cat with 20 qubits
Dead or alive, left-spinning or right-spinning -- in the quantum world particles such as the famous analogy of Schrödinger's cat can be all these things at the same time. An international team, together with experts from Forschungszentrum Jülich, have now succeeded in transforming 20 entangled quantum bits into such a state of superposition. The generation of such atomic Schrödinger cat states is regarded as an important step in the development of quantum computers.
AI tool characterizes a song's genre and provides insights regarding perception music
An artificial intelligence tool can characterize a song's genre and provides increased understanding how we perceive and process music. Applications include how music content is marketed, consumed and tagged; neuropsychology and the mechanisms of human thought; and affective computing systems that impact human emotions.
Artificial intelligence helps banana growers protect the world's most favorite fruit
Using artificial intelligence, scientists created an easy-to-use tool to detect banana diseases and pests. With an average 90 percent success rate in detecting a pest or a disease, the tool can help farmers avoid millions of dollars in losses.
Sharp meets flat in tunable 2D material
Scientists have created unique two-dimensional flakes with two distinct personalities: molybdenum diselenide on one side of a sharp divide with rhenium diselenide on the other. The materials show promise for optoelectronics.
Turning off backscattering to improve optical data transmission
Engineers have found a way to redirect misfit light waves to reduce energy loss during optical data transmission. In a study, researchers exploited an interaction between light and sound waves to suppress the scattering of light from material defects -- which could lead to improved fiber optic communication.
Robots need a new philosophy to get a grip
Robots need to know the reason why they are doing a job if they are to effectively and safely work alongside people in the near future. In simple terms, this means machines need to understand motive the way humans do, and not just perform tasks blindly, without context.
Virtual 'universe machine' sheds light on galaxy evolution
By creating millions of virtual universes and comparing them to observations of actual galaxies, researchers have made discoveries that present a powerful new approach for studying galaxy formation.
We like our math like we like our art: Beautiful
A beautiful landscape painting, a beautiful piano sonata -- art and music are almost exclusively described in terms of aesthetics, but what about math? Beyond useful or brilliant, can an abstract idea be considered beautiful?
Turbulence meets a shock
Interaction of shocks and turbulence investigated with a focus on high intensity turbulence levels. A new theoretical framework was developed and tested to understand turbulent jumps of mean thermodynamic quantities, shock structure and amplification factors. TACC's XSEDE-allocated Stampede2 ran simulations of shock turbulence interactions at unprecedented levels of realism. Research could help develop supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, more efficient engine ignition, as well as probe the mysteries of supernova explosions, star formation, and more.
Mathematicians develop new statistical indicator
Up to now, it has taken a great deal of computational effort to detect dependencies between more than two high-dimensional variables, in particular when complicated non-linear relationships are involved. Mathematicians have now developed a dependence measure called 'distance multivariance'.
Enhancing the quality of AI requires moving beyond the quantitative
Artificial Intelligence engineers should enlist ideas and expertise from a broad range of social science disciplines, including those embracing qualitative methods, in order to reduce the potential harm of their creations and to better serve society as a whole, a pair of researchers has concluded.
Artificial intelligence could yield more accurate breast cancer diagnoses
Researchers have developed an artificial intelligence system that could help pathologists read biopsies more accurately and to better detect and diagnose breast cancer.
Cyborg organoids offer rare view into early stages of development
Researchers have grown simplified organs known as organoids with fully integrated sensors. These so-called cyborg organoids offer a rare glimpse into the early stages of organ development.
The brain inspires a new type of artificial intelligence
Using advanced experiments on neuronal cultures and large scale simulations, scientists have demonstrated a new type of ultrafast artificial intelligence algorithms -- based on the very slow brain dynamics -- which outperform learning rates achieved to date by state-of-the-art learning algorithms. In an article in Scientific Reports, the researchers rebuild the bridge between neuroscience and advanced artificial intelligence algorithms that has been left virtually useless for almost 70 years.
Leaping larvae! How do they do that without legs?
'Hydrostatic legless jumping' launches a 3-millimeter maggot of a goldenrod gall midge 20-30 body-lengths away with acceleration rivalling the best legged leapers. The larva latches its head to its tail with a previously unknown adhesive and squeezes some internal fluids into its tail section for launch pressure. This style of flight is about 28 times more efficient than crawling, a finding that may intrigue soft robotics.
New perovskite material shows early promise as an alternative to silicon
CsPbI3 is an inorganic perovskite, a group of materials gaining popularity in the solar world due to their high efficiency and low cost. This configuration is noteworthy as stabilizing these materials has historically been a challenge.
This designer clothing lets users turn on electronics while turning away bacteria
Purdue University researchers have developed a new fabric innovation that allows the wearer to control electronic devices through the clothing.
New design strategy brightens up the future of perovskite-based light-emitting diodes
Scientists have discovered a new strategy to design incredibly efficient perovskite-based LEDs with record-setting brightness by leveraging the quantum confinement effect.
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