Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
New scheduling tool offers both better flight choices and increased airline profits
Researchers have developed an original approach to flight scheduling that, if implemented, could result in a significant increase in profits for airlines and more flights that align with passengers' preferences.
The way you dance is unique, and computers can tell it's you
Nearly everyone responds to music with movement, whether through subtle toe-tapping or an all-out boogie. A recent discovery shows that our dance style is almost always the same, regardless of the type of music, and a computer can identify the dancer with astounding accuracy.
Internet use reduces study skills in university students
Research has shown that students who use digital technology excessively are less motivated to engage with their studies, and are more anxious about tests. This effect was made worse by the increased feelings of loneliness that use of digital technology produced.
How sensitive can a quantum detector be?
Measuring the energy of quantum states requires detecting energy changes so exceptionally small they are hard to pick out from background fluctuations, like using only a thermometer to try and work out if someone has blown out a candle in the room you're in. New research presents sensitive quantum thermometry hitting the bounds that nature allows.
Improved brain chip for precision medicine
A biomedical research team is reporting an improvement on a microfluidic brain cancer chip. The new chip allows quick assessment of the effectiveness of cancer drugs on brain tumors.
Organized cybercrime -- not your average mafia
Scientists have identified common attributes of cybercrime networks, revealing how these groups function and work together to cause an estimated $445-600 billion of harm globally per year.
What's MER? A new way to measure quantum materials
Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. They even coined a term for it -- magneto-elastoresistance, or MER.
Quantum physics: Controlled experiment observes self-organized criticality
Researchers have observed important characteristics of complex systems in a lab experiment. Their discovery could facilitate the development of quantum technologies.
AlphaZero learns to rule the quantum world
The chess world was amazed when the computer algorithm AlphaZero learned, after just four hours on its own, to beat the best chess programs built on human expertise. Now a research group has used the very same algorithm to control a quantum computer.
Deep learning enables real-time imaging around corners
Researchers have harnessed the power of a type of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to create a new laser-based system that can image around corners in real time. With further development, the system might let self-driving cars 'look' around parked cars or busy intersections to see hazards or pedestrians.
Creating learning resources for blind students
Mathematics and science Braille textbooks are expensive and require an enormous effort to produce -- until now. A team of researchers has developed a method for easily creating textbooks in Braille, with an initial focus on math textbooks. The new process is made possible by a new authoring system which serves as a 'universal translator' for textbook formats. Based on this new method, the production of Braille textbooks will become easy, inexpensive, and widespread.
Electron spins in slowly moving quantum dots may be controlled by electric fields
A new article presents a theoretical analysis of electron spins in moving semiconductor quantum dots, showing how these can be controlled by electric fields in a way that suggests they may be usable as information storage and processing components of quantum computers.
Reinventing the computer: Brain-inspired computing for a post-Moore's Law era
Computing development has seen a consistent doubling of the number of transistors that can fit on a chip. But that trend, Moore's Law, may reach its limit as components of submolecular size encounter problems with thermal noise, making further scaling impossible. Researchers present an examination of the computing landscape, focusing on functions needed to advance brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. Their proposed pathway includes hybrid architectures composed of both digital and analog architectures.
Toward safer disposal of printed circuit boards
Printed circuit boards are vital components of modern electronics. However, once they have served their purpose, they are often burned or buried in landfills, polluting the air, soil and water. Most concerning are the brominated flame retardants added to printed circuit boards to keep them from catching fire. Now, researchers have developed a ball-milling method to break down these potentially harmful compounds, enabling safer disposal.
Who's liable? The AV or the human driver?
Researchers have developed a joint fault-based liability rule that can be used to regulate both self-driving car manufacturers and human drivers. They propose a game-theoretic model that describes the strategic interactions among the law maker, the self-driving car manufacturer, the self-driving car, and human drivers, and examine how, as the market penetration of AVs increases, the liability rule should evolve.
Brain model offers new insights into damage caused by stroke and other injuries
A researcher has developed a computer model of the human brain that more realistically simulates actual patterns of brain impairment than existing methods. The novel advancement creates a digital simulation environment that could help stroke victims and patients with other brain injuries by serving as a testing ground for hypotheses about specific neurological damage.
The wisdom of crowds: What smart cities can learn from a dead ox and live fish
In 1906, Francis Galton was at a country fair where attendees had the opportunity to guess the weight of a dead ox. Galton took the guesses of 787 fair-goers and found that the average guess was only one pound off of the correct weight -- even when individual guesses were off base.
Colloidal quantum dot laser diodes are just around the corner
Scientists have incorporated meticulously engineered colloidal quantum dots into a new type of light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing an integrated optical resonator, which allows them to function as lasers. These novel, dual-function devices clear the path towards versatile, manufacturing-friendly laser diodes. The technology can potentially revolutionize numerous fields from photonics and optoelectronics to chemical sensing and medical diagnostics.
Watching complex molecules at work
A new method of infrared spectroscopy developed at BESSY II makes single-measurement observation and analysis of very fast as well as irreversible reaction mechanisms in molecules feasible for the first time. Previously, thousands of such reactions have had to be run and measured for this purpose. The research team has now used the new device to investigate how rhodopsin molecules change after activation by light -- a process that is the basis of how we see.
Man versus machine: Can AI do science?
Scientists have shown that machines can beat theoretical physicists at their own game, solving complex problems just as accurately as scientists, but considerably faster.
Living robots built using frog cells
Scientists repurposed living frog cells -- and assembled them into entirely new life-forms. These tiny 'xenobots' can move toward a target and heal themselves after being cut. These novel living machines are neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. They're a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism.
Connector fungi offer new clues to fate of nitrogen in warming tundra
New research could have implications for researchers and computer models that predict where nitrogen and carbon go at both regional and global levels.
AI can detect low-glucose levels via ECG without fingerprick test
A new technology for detecting low glucose levels via ECG using a noninvasive wearable sensor, which with the latest artificial intelligence can detect hypoglycemic events from raw ECG signals has been made.
Pioneering tool to manage media industry's digital carbon footprint
A collaboration between computer scientists and nine major media companies will help the media industry understand and manage the significant carbon impacts of digital content.
Deep learning differentiates small renal masses on multiphase CT
A deep learning method with a convolutional neural network can support the evaluation of small solid renal masses in dynamic CT images -- especially in the corticomedullary image model -- with acceptable diagnostic performance.
New open-source software judges accuracy of computer predictions of cancer genetics
Researchers have created new open-source software which determines the accuracy of computer predictions of genetic variation within tumor samples.
Machine learning shapes microwaves for a computer's eyes
To improve object identification and speed in fields where both are critical -- such as autonomous vehicles, security screening and motion sensing -- engineers have developed a method to identify objects using microwaves that improves accuracy while reducing the associated computing time and power requirements. This machine-learning approach cuts out the middleman, skipping the step of creating an image for analysis by a human and instead analyzes the pure data directly.
Mathematicians put famous Battle of Britain 'what if' scenarios to the test
Mathematicians have developed a new model to explore what the impact of changes to Luftwaffe tactics would actually have been. Their approach uses statistical modelling to calculate how the Battle might have played out if history had followed one of several alternative courses.
Can sea star movement inspire better robots?
What researchers have learned about how a sea star accomplishes movement synchronization, given that it has no brain and a completely decentralized nervous system, might help us design more efficient robotics systems.
Helping land managers take risk-analysis approach to new wildfire reality
New digital tools will enable land managers to better adapt to the new reality of large wildfires through analytics that guide planning and suppression across jurisdictional boundaries that fires typically don't adhere to.
Outbreak science: Infectious disease research leads to outbreak predictions
Infectious diseases have a substantially growing impact on the health of communities around the world and pressure to both predict and prevent such diseases is ever-growing. A professor has developed a simple approach to accurately predict disease outbreaks by combining novel statistical techniques and a large dataset on pathogen biogeography.
New mathematical model shows how diversity speeds consensus
Scientific literature abounds with examples of ways in which member diversity can benefit a group -- whether spider colonies' ability to forage or an industrial company's financial performance. Now, a newly published mathematical framework substantiates the seemingly counterintuitive observations made by prior scholars: interaction among dissimilar individuals can speed consensus.
Skin-like sensors bring a human touch to wearable tech
Researchers have developed a super-stretchy, transparent and self-powering sensor that records the complex sensations of human skin. Dubbed artificial ionic skin -- or AISkin for short -- the researchers believe the innovative properties of AISkin could lead to future advancements in wearable electronics, personal health care and robotics.
Virtual reality, real injuries: How to reduce physical risk in VR
Carpal tunnel, stiff shoulders, eye-strain headaches -- these are all well-known side effects of prolonged computer use. But what happens when you step away from the desktop and into virtual reality? A recent study assessed how some common virtual reality movements contribute to muscle strain and discomfort. It's an effort to ensure future user safety in this fast-growing technology that's used not only for gaming, but also increasingly for education and industrial training.
Smart algorithm finds possible future treatment for childhood cancer
Using a computer algorithm, scientists have identified a promising new treatment for neuroblastoma. This form of cancer in children, which occurs in specialized nerve cells in the sympathetic nervous system, may be life-threatening.
Indeterminist physics for an open world
Classical physics is characterized by the equations describing the world. Yet our day-to-day experience is struck by this deterministic vision of the world. A physicist has been analyzing the classical mathematical language used in modern physics. He has thrown light on a contradiction between the equations that explained the phenomena and the finite world. He suggests making changes to the mathematical language to allow randomness and indeterminism to become part of classical physics.
Robotic trunk support assists those with spinal cord injury
An engineering team has invented a robotic device -- the Trunk-Support Trainer (TruST) -- that can be used to assist and train people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to sit more stably by improving their trunk control, and thus gain an expanded active sitting workspace without falling over or using their hands to balance. The study is the first to measure and define the sitting workspace of patients with SCI based on their active trunk control.
Performance benchmark for quantum computers
Researchers have developed a quantum chemistry simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of quantum devices and guide the development of applications for future quantum computers.
Researchers build a particle accelerator that fits on a chip
For the first time, scientists have created a silicon chip that can accelerate electrons -- albeit at a fraction of the velocity of the most massive accelerators -- using an infrared laser to deliver, in less than a hair's width, the sort of energy boost that takes microwaves many feet.
Using deep learning to predict disease-associated mutations
A research team implemented a robust deep learning approach to predict disease-associated mutations of the metal-binding sites in a protein. This is the first deep learning approach for the prediction of disease-associated metal-relevant site mutations in metalloproteins, providing a new platform to tackle human diseases.
Finally, machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly
A new brand of artificial neural network has solved an interpretability problem that has frustrated biologists. With it, scientists may solve mysteries about gene regulation and drug discovery.
Paving the way for spintronic RAMs: A deeper look into a powerful spin phenomenon
Scientists explore a new material combination that sets the stage for magnetic random access memories, which rely on spin -- an intrinsic property of electrons -- and could outperform current storage devices. Their breakthrough presents a novel strategy to exploit spin-related phenomena in topological materials, which could spur several advances in the field of spin electronics. Moreover, this study provides additional insight into the underlying mechanism of spin-related phenomena.
In leap for quantum computing, silicon quantum bits establish a long-distance relationship
In an important step forward in the quest to build a quantum computer using silicon-based hardware, researchers have succeeded in making possible the exchange of information between two qubits located relatively far apart -- about the length of a grain of rice, which is a considerable distance on a computer chip. Connecting two silicon qubits across this distance makes possible new and more complex silicon-based quantum computer circuits.
Computing with molecules: A big step in molecular spintronics
Chemists and physicists have designed, deposited and operated single molecular spin switches on surfaces. The newly developed molecules feature stable spin states and do not lose their functionality upon adsorption on surfaces.
A new method for boosting the learning of mathematics
How can mathematics learning in primary school be facilitated? Scientists have developed an intervention to promote the learning of math in school. Named ACE-ArithmEcole, the program is designed to help schoolchildren surpass their intuitions and rely instead on the use of arithmetic principles. More than half (50.5%) of the students who took part in the intervention were able to solve difficult problems, as compared to 29.8% for pupils who followed the standard course of study.
The coolest LEGO ® in the universe
For the first time, LEGO ® has been cooled to the lowest temperature possible in an experiment which reveals a new use for the popular toy -- the development of quantum computing. A figure and four blocks were placed inside the most effective refrigerator in the world, capable of reaching 1.6 millidegrees above absolute zero (minus 273.15 Centigrade), which is about 200,000 times colder than room temperature and 2,000 times colder than deep space.
Artificial intelligence tracks down leukemia
Artificial intelligence can detect one of the most common forms of blood cancer - acute myeloid leukemia -- with high reliability. Researchers at the DZNE and the University of Bonn have now shown this in a proof-of-concept study. Their approach is based on the analysis of the gene activity of cells found in the blood. Used in practice, this approach could support conventional diagnostics and possibly accelerate the beginning of therapy. The research results have been published in the journal 'iScience'.
Development of a stretchable vibration-powered device using a liquid electret
Researchers developed a liquid electret material capable of semi-permanently retaining static electricity. They subsequently combined this material with soft electrodes to create the first bendable, stretchable vibration-powered device in the world. Because this device is highly deformable and capable of converting very subtle vibrations into electrical signals, it may be applicable to the development of healthcare-devices, such as self-powered heartbeat and pulse sensors.
An algorithm for large-scale genomic analysis
The examination of Haplotypes makes it possible to understand the heritability of certain complex traits. However, genome analysis of family members is usually necessary, a tedious and expensive process. Researchers have developed SHAPEIT4, a powerful computer algorithm that allows the haplotypes of hundreds of thousands of unrelated individuals to be identified very quickly. Results are as detailed as when family analysis is performed. Their tool is available online under an open source license.
Using a chip to find better cancer fighting drugs
Researchers have developed a new 'tumor-on-a-chip' device that can better mimic the environment inside the body, paving the way for improved screening of potential cancer fighting drugs. The device, has a 1 mm well at the center flanked by a series of 'microposts'. The culture is placed in the middle well, and cells that construct blood vessels are places along the microposts. Over a few days the vessels grow and attaches to the culture.
CRISPR-Cas9 datasets analysis leads to largest genetic screen resource for cancer research
A comprehensive map of genes necessary for cancer survival is one step closer, following validation of the two largest CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screens in 725 cancer models, across 25 different cancer types. Scientists compared the consistency of the two datasets, independently verifying the methodology and findings. The study will help speed the discovery and development of new cancer drugs.
No tempest in a teacup -- it's a cyclone on a silicon chip
Researchers have combined quantum liquids and silicon-chip technology to study turbulence for the first time, opening the door to new navigation technologies and improved understanding of the turbulent dynamics of cyclones and other extreme weather.
This 'lemon' could help machine learning create better drugs
Drug discovery researchers have created a new framework for mining data for training machine learning models.
Advancing information processing with exceptional points and surfaces
Researchers have for the first time detected an exceptional surface based on measurements of exceptional points. These points are modes that exhibit phenomenon with possible practical applications in information processing.
Researchers directly measure 'Cheerios effect' forces for the first time
In a finding that could be useful in designing small aquatic robots, researchers have measured the forces that cause small objects to cluster together on the surface of a liquid -- a phenomenon known as the 'Cheerios effect.'
Model beats Wall Street analysts in forecasting business financials
Researchers describe a model for forecasting financials that uses only anonymized weekly credit card transactions and three-month earning reports. Tasked with predicting quarterly earnings of more than 30 companies, the model outperformed the combined estimates of expert Wall Street analysts on 57 percent of predictions.
Fireballs: mail from space
The analysis of fireball observations in large datasets can be made much quicker with the help of a neat mathematical formula.
Scientists discover first antiferromagnetic topological quantum material
Scientists have discovered a new type of bulk quantum material with intrinsically magnetic and topological properties. The new material is called manganese-bismuth telluride (MnBi2Te4) and is extremely promising for application in antiferromagnetic spintronics and quantum technologies.
AI's future potential hinges on consensus
The role of artificial intelligence, or machine learning, will be pivotal as the industry wrestles with a gargantuan amount of data that could improve -- or muddle -- health and cost priorities, according to a recent publication on the use of AI in health care.
'Inconsistent and misleading' password meters could increase risk of cyber attacks
With the worst passwords of 2019 now revealed, and technology topping many festive wish lists, a new study assessed the effectiveness of password meters that people are likely to use or encounter on a regular basis.
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