Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Quantum chemical calculations on quantum computers
A new quantum algorithm has been implemented for quantum chemical calculations such as Full-CI on quantum computers without exponential/combinatorial explosion, giving exact solutions of Schroedinger Equations for atoms and molecules, for the first time.
How complexity science can quickly detect climate record anomalies
When making sense of the massive amount of information packed into an ice core, scientists face a forensic challenge: how best to separate the useful information from the corrupt. Tools from information theory, a branch of complexity science, can quickly flag which segments, in over a million data points, require further investigation.
Computer chip vulnerabilities discovered
A research team has uncovered significant and previously unknown vulnerabilities in high-performance computer chips that could lead to failures in modern electronics.
Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power
Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and save power for smart devices, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved functionality in a super thin material.
Tangled magnetic fields power cosmic particle accelerators
Magnetic field lines tangled like spaghetti in a bowl might be behind the most powerful particle accelerators in the universe. That's the result of a new computational study that simulated particle emissions from distant active galaxies.
Monitoring the environment with artificial intelligence
Microorganisms perform key functions in ecosystems and their diversity reflects the health of their environment. Researchers use genomic tools to sequence the DNA of microorganisms in samples, and then exploit this considerable amount of data with artificial intelligence. They build predictive models capable of establishing a diagnosis of the health of ecosystems and identify species that perform important functions. This new approach will significantly increase the observation capacity of large ecosystems.
New device could help answer fundamental questions about quantum physics
Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity.
Ingestible capsule can be controlled wirelessly
Researchers have designed an ingestible capsule that can be controlled using Bluetooth wireless technology. Their capsule, which can be customized to deliver drugs, sense environmental conditions, or a combination of those functions, can reside in the stomach for at least a month, transmitting information and responding to instructions from a user's smartphone.
High-efficiency discovery drives low-power computing
Challenge any modern human to go a day without a phone or computer, and you'd be hard pressed to get any takers. Our collective obsession with all things electronic is driving a dramatic daily drain on the world's power. In fact, if we continue on pace with our current ever-increasing energy consumption, by the year 2035, we will use all of the world's energy to run our computers - an impossible/unsustainable situation.
Video game players frequently exposed to graphic content may see world differently
Disturbing imagery disrupts perception, but not as much among violent video game players, psychologists have shown.
How unconventional metals behave, with an eye on high-temperature superconductors
By trapping atoms in a lattice of light, researchers explore how unconventional metals conduct electricity, with an eye toward understanding high-temperature superconductors.
How deep learning is bringing automatic cloud detection to new heights
Can deep learning -- a distinct subset of machine learning -- do a better job at identifying clouds in lidar data than the current physics-based algorithms? The answer: A clear 'yes.' A new model is much closer to the answers scientists arrive at but in just a fraction of the time.
Mathematical solver for analog computers
Scientists have been working toward developing a novel mathematical approach that will help advance computation beyond the digital framework.
Clue to epidemics in 'bursty' social behavior
Researchers have developed a mathematical model that could cure the potential to underestimate how quickly diseases spread. The team discovered that current predictive models may miss the influence of a critical aspect of the social behavior of individuals called 'burstiness.'
New models sense human trust in smart machines
New 'classification models' sense how well humans trust intelligent machines they collaborate with, a step toward improving the quality of interactions and teamwork.
Taming turbulence: Seeking to make complex simulations a breeze
Previously intractable problems for designing fusion experiments, improving weather models, and understanding astrophysical phenomena such as star formation will be more easily addressed without the need for expensive supercomputers using a new model.
New tool for understanding enzymes -- Google
Chemistry professors used the Google algorithm PageRank to identify key amino acids in the regulation of a bacterial enzyme essential for most microorganisms.
52 million tree stories more accessible to science
The world's primary archive of tree ring data, which holds more than 52 million cost-free records spanning 8,000 years of history, has gotten a makeover by scientists from four countries committed to making science more accessible. The International Tree Ring Data Bank, developed in 1974 and populated by hundreds of contributing scientists and agencies, had only been used for a handful of studies at a global scale due to inconsistent data accessibility and formatting.
Copper compound as promising quantum computing unit
Chemists have now synthesized a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer.
Online game trains players how to sort waste correctly
A simple online game can teach people to more accurately sort waste -- with lasting results, a new study has found. Study participants who played the game received immediate feedback on their sorting choices. The second time they played -- when feedback was no longer provided -- players still improved their average accuracy from 69 per cent to 84 per cent. Even when a week passed between games, players still improved their accuracy.
Topological material switched off and on for the first time
A new study represents a significant advance in topological transistors and beyond-CMOS electronics. First time that the topological state in a topological insulator has been switched on and off using an electric field. Researchers proved this is possible at room temperature, which is necessary for any viable replacement to CMOS technology in everyday applications.
Antenna evaluation method could help boost 5G network capacity and cut costs
Researchers have developed a method for evaluating and selecting optimal antenna designs for future fifth-generation (5G) cellphones, other wireless devices and base stations.
The privacy risks of compiling mobility data
A new study finds that the growing practice of compiling massive, anonymized datasets about people's movement patterns is a double-edged sword: While it can provide deep insights into human behavior for research, it could also put people's private data at risk.
Harnessing the power of 'spin orbit' coupling in silicon: Scaling up quantum computation
Research teams are investigating multiple pathways to scale up atom-based computing architectures using spin-orbit coupling -- advancing towards their goal of building a silicon-based quantum computer.
Scientists exchanged quantum information on daylight in a free-space quantum key distribution
Scientists have reported a successful free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) in daylight with the self-developed polarization encoding chip for the first time. QKD is one of the most promising secure communication technologies, which encodes information into a single-photon, the smallest measurable unit of light. By using the quantum mechanical properties of the single-photon, quantum cryptography guarantees secure information exchange between the distant parties.
Two-dimensional materials skip the energy barrier by growing one row at a time
A new study could provide engineers new design rules for creating microelectronics, membranes, and tissues, and open up better production methods for new materials. At the same time, the research helps uphold a scientific theory that has remained unproven for over a century.
Supercomputers without waste heat
Physicists explore superconductivity for information processing.
Focusing on the negative is good when it comes to batteries
Fluoride-based batteries have the potential to last up to eight times longer than those in use today.
What can a snowflake teach us about how cancer spreads in the body?
What can seashells, lightning and the coastline of Britain teach us about new drugs for cancer? The answer, according to a team of researchers, may revolve around fractals, the infinitely complex patterns found in nature.
Scientists enter unexplored territory in superconductivity search
Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors -- materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss -- have entered a new regime. Using newly connected tools, they've uncovered previously inaccessible details of the 'phase diagram' of one of the most commonly studied 'high-temperature' superconductors.
Revolutionary technology pinpoints biopsies to detect prostate cancer
Medical software that overlays tumor information from MRI scans onto ultrasound images can help guide surgeons conducting biopsies and improve prostate cancer detection.
Guiding the smart growth of artificial intelligence
A new article provides a comprehensive look at the development of an ethical framework, code of conduct, and value-based design methodologies for AI researchers and application developers in Europe.
Stress from using electronic health records is linked to physician burnout
Researchers have found that health information technology-related stress was most common among primary care doctors.
First observation of a square lattice of merons and antimerons
Scientists have, for the first time, observed a square lattice of merons and antimerons -- tiny magnetic vortices and antivortices that form in a thin plate of the helical magnet Co8Zn9Mn3. The ability to manipulate nanometer-scale spin textures such as merons and skyrmions is a key to the development of spintronics -- next-generation electronic devices that are very low in power consumption.
Biological templating: Using a virus to speed up modern computers
Researchers have successfully developed a method -- using a bacteriophage -- that could lead to unprecedented advances in computer speed and efficiency.
New attack could make website security captchas obsolete
Researchers have created new artificial intelligence that could spell the end for one of the most widely used website security systems. The new algorithm, based on deep learning methods, is the most effective solver of captcha security and authentication systems to date and is able to defeat versions of text captcha schemes used to defend the majority of the world's most popular websites.
New building block in quantum computing demonstrated
Researchers have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. The team's experimental system allows them to manipulate the frequency of photons to bring about superposition, a state that enables quantum operations and computing.
Mathematical model offers new strategies for urban burglary prevention
As with most crime, the highest rates of burglary occur in urban communities. However, existing mathematical models typically examine burglaries in residential, suburban environments. In a new article, researchers present a nonlinear model of urban burglary dynamics that accounts for the deterring effect of police presence and emphasizes timing of criminal activity.
Mountain splendor? Scientists know where your eyes will look
Using precise brain measurements, researchers predicted how people's eyes move when viewing natural scenes, an advance in understanding the human visual system that can improve a host of artificial intelligence efforts, such as the development of driverless cars.
Retail outlets using telehealth pose significant privacy, policy concerns for health care
As retail outlets deliver health care services, including telehealth, physicians say more needs to be done to protect patient privacy, anticipate the capabilities of artificial intelligence and other rapidly advancing technologies.
To detect new odors, fruit fly brains improve on a well-known computer algorithm
It might seem like fruit flies would have nothing in common with computers, but new research reveals that the two identify novel information in similar ways. The work not only sheds light on an important neurobiological problem -- how organisms detect new odors -- but could also improve algorithms for novelty detection in computer science.
Can predictive analytics help banks, consumers avoid overdraft issues? New study says, yes
In 2012, consumers paid $32 billion in overdraft fees, which represented the single largest source of revenue for banks from demand deposit accounts, while leading to significant levels of consumer dissatisfaction and attracting attention from government regulators. In a recent study, researchers have found that it may be possible to help correct this problem through the application of sophisticated data analytics.
Tackling the challenge of undergraduate retention in computing
ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery, has released the highly anticipated report. Among its key recommendations, the report calls for additional research to provide a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of attrition and retention, and encourages higher education institutions to provide proactive advising to ensure that students are exposed to career opportunities and pathways early in their undergraduate experience.
Borophene advances as 2D materials platform
Physicists synthesized 2D atom-thin sheets of boron with large crystal domains, which are needed to make next-gen electronics.
New quantum materials could take computing devices beyond the semiconductor era
Scientists in industry and academia are looking for new materials to succeed highly successful semiconductor transistors. Scientists have hit on a very promising post-transistor technology: multiferroics, which use magnetic spin states instead of electron charge to store binary data. They have shown that these MESO (magneto-electric spin-orbit) devices can greatly improve energy efficiency and pack more logic devices onto a chip.
Graphene unlocks new potential for 'smart textiles'
The quest to create affordable, durable and mass-produced 'smart textiles' has been given fresh impetus through the use of the wonder material graphene.
Artificial intelligence for studying the ancient human populations of Patagonia
Researchers have used statistical techniques of automatic learning to analyze mobility patterns and technology of the hunter-gatherer groups that inhabited the Southern Cone of America, from the time they arrived about 12,000 years ago until the end of the 19th century. Big data from archaeological sites located in the extreme south of Patagonia have been used for this study.
Colloidal quantum dots make LEDs shine bright in the infrared
A group of researchers report on the development of a colloidal quantum-dot light emitting diode with unprecedented quantum and power conversion efficiencies in the infrared range. The study has proven that these devices can also be integrated in inorganic solar cells and may lead to even higher efficiencies.
Will light be the basis for quantum computing?
Using a compact optical platform that exploits the quantum characteristics of light, scientists are one step closer to realizing the first powerful photonic quantum computer. The researchers revealed to have generated a particular class of quantum states - d-level cluster states, robust and powerful than any other such states demonstrated thus far -, as well as to have used them to implement novel quantum operations.
Free, publicly available health data proves to be research gold mine
Immunotherapy has become a popular treatment for some cancers. Researchers discover how a set of genes, those associated with the extracellular matrix, had a direct connection to how cancer patients respond to immunotherapy.
A new light on significantly faster computer memory devices
A team of scientists now has an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes.
A new way to see stress -- using supercomputers
Supercomputer simulations show that at the atomic level, material stress doesn't behave symmetrically. Widely-used atomic stress formulae significantly underestimate stress near stress concentrators such as dislocation core, crack tip, or interface, in a material under deformation. Supercomputers simulate force interactions of Lennard-Jones perfect single crystal of 240,000 atoms. Study findings could help scientists design new materials such as glass or metal that doesn't ice up.
Searching an artificial bee colony for real-world results
The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is widely applied in many fields, but it suffers from slow convergence, so its solutions perform well in exploration but poorly in exploitation. Researchers proposed a scale-free mechanism to guide the search of the ABC algorithm. They verified that scale-free networks improve the algorithm's optimization performance and enhance the search ability of other metaheuristic algorithms.
Virtual reality could serve as powerful environmental education tool
Researchers took a virtual reality experience into a variety of educational settings, including high school classrooms, to test the impact on awareness and understanding of ocean acidification.
The Wizard of Oz most 'influential' film of all time according to network science
The Wizard of Oz, followed by Star Wars and Psycho, is identified as the most influential film of all time in a new study.
Insight into swimming fish could lead to robotics advances
The constant movement of fish that seems random is actually precisely deployed to provide them at any moment with the best sensory feedback they need to navigate the world.
Scientists find a way to enhance the performance of quantum computers
Scientists have demonstrated a theoretical method to enhance the performance of quantum computers works, an important step to scale the transformative technology.
Switching identities: Revolutionary insulator-like material also conducts electricity
Researchers have made a material that can transition from an electricity-transmitting metal to a nonconducting insulating material without changing its atomic structure.
Making it easier to transform freeform 2D sketching into 3D Models
A new computational approach, built on data-driven techniques, is making it possible to turn simple 2D sketch into a realistic 3D shape, with little or no user input necessary.
An important step towards completely secure quantum communication networks
The quest for a secure information network is on. Researchers have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network.
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