Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Engineers can detect ultra rare proteins in blood using a cellphone camera
Commercial approaches to ultrasensitive protein detection are starting to become available, but they are based on expensive optics and fluid handlers, which make them relatively bulky and expensive. Knowing that having this sort of diagnostic system available as a point-of-care device would be critical for many conditions, especially traumatic brain injury, engineers have developed a test that uses off-the-shelf components and can detect single proteins with results in a matter of minutes.
In the blink of an eye: Team uses quantum of light to create new quantum simulator
Imagine being stuck inside a maze and wanting to find your way out. How would you proceed? The answer is trial and error. This is how traditional computers with classical algorithms operate to find the solution to a complex problem. Now consider this: What if, by magic, you were able to clone yourself into multiple versions so that you were able to go through all the various paths at the same time? You'd find the exit almost instantly.
Breakthrough in the search for graphene-based electronics
A team of researchers from Denmark has solved one of the biggest challenges in making effective nanoelectronics based on graphene.
Spherical display brings virtual collaboration closer to reality
Virtual reality can often make a user feel isolated from the world, with only computer-generated characters for company. But researchers think they may have found a way to encourage a more sociable virtual reality.
Terahertz wireless makes big strides in paving the way to technological singularity
Scientists have announced the successful development of a terahertz (THz) transceiver that can transmit or receive digital data at 80 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). The transceiver was implemented using silicon CMOS integrated circuit technology, which would have a great advantage for volume production.
Gearing up for 5G: A miniature, low-cost transceiver for fast, reliable communications
Researchers have designed a 28 GHz transceiver that integrates beamforming with dual-polarized multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology. Measuring just 3 mm by 4 mm, this tiny transceiver could help improve performances of fifth-generation cellular network (5G) and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
Altered data sets can still provide statistical integrity and preserve privacy
Synthetic networks may increase the availability of some data while still protecting individual or institutional privacy, according to a statistician.
How do we conserve and restore computer-based art in a changing technological environment?
Just as conservators have developed methods to protect traditional artworks, computer scientists have now created means to safeguard computer- or time-based art by following the same preservation principles.
Graphene-based wearables for health monitoring, food inspection and night vision
Scientists have developed dozens of new graphene-based prototypes. These technologies aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices.
Can we trust scientific discoveries made using machine learning?
Statisticians are cautioning fellow scientists not to make assumptions about the accuracy, uncertainty or reproducibility of scientific discoveries made with today's machine learning models.
Artificial intelligence can predict survival of ovarian cancer patients
Researchers have created new machine learning software that can forecast the survival rates and response to treatments of patients with ovarian cancer.
Immersive virtual reality therapy shows lasting effect in treatment of phobias in children with autism
New research shows that an immersive virtual reality environment treats 45 percent of children with autism, freeing them from their fears and phobias -- and that the treatment lasts.
Improved RNA data visualization method gets to the bigger picture faster
Like going from a pinhole camera to a Polaroid, a significant mathematical update to the formula for a popular bioinformatics data visualization method will allow researchers to develop snapshots of single-cell gene expression not only several times faster but also at much higher-resolution. This innovation by mathematicians will reduce the rendering time of a million-point single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data set from over three hours down to just fifteen minutes.
Multitasking increases in online courses compared to face-to-face
The phenomenon of multitasking across three or four internet-connected devices simultaneously is increasingly common. Researchers were curious to know how often this happens during online education, a method of delivering college and even high school courses entirely via an internet-connected computer as opposed to a traditional face-to-face course with a teacher physically present.
Artificial intelligence to boost Earth system science
A new study shows that artificial intelligence can substantially improve our understanding of the climate and the Earth system.
Direct-write quantum calligraphy in monolayer semiconductors
An interdisciplinary team of researchers have developed a way to directly write quantum light sources, which emit a single photon of light at a time, into monolayer semiconductors.
Blockchain can strengthen the credibility of meta-analyses
Blockchain -- the technology behind the secure transactions of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin -- can make it easier for researchers to conduct transparent meta-analyses in social science research where reproducibility is a growing concern.
High-speed surveillance in solar cells catches recombination red-handed
Using synchronized lasers pulses, researchers developed a new method of electrostatic force microscopy that can record movies with frames as fast as 300 nanoseconds. This is fast enough to watch electrons move inside solar cells, which can lead to more efficient solar power devices.
UK sales of Xanax and other prescription psychiatric drugs increasing via the darknet
Sales of prescription psychiatric drugs such as Xanax and diazepam via darknet online drug markets have increased in the UK at an alarming rate, according to new research.
The first walking robot that moves without GPS
Desert ants are extraordinary solitary navigators. Researchers were inspired by these ants as they designed AntBot, the first walking robot that can explore its environment randomly and go home automatically, without GPS or mapping. This work opens up new strategies for navigation in autonomous vehicles and robotics.
Developable mechanisms can reside inside the surface of a structure
Engineers detail new technology that allows them to build complex mechanisms into the exterior of a structure without taking up any actual space below the surface. This new class of mechanisms, called 'developable mechanisms,' get their name from developable surfaces, or materials that can take on 3-D shapes from flat conformations without tearing or stretching, like a sheet of paper or metal.
Getting a grip on human-robot cooperation
There is a time when a successful cooperation between humans and robots has decisive importance: it is in the precise moment that one "actor" is required to hand an object to another "actor" and, therefore, to coordinate their actions accordingly. But how can we make this interaction more natural for robots?
Running an LED in reverse could cool future computers
In a finding that runs counter to a common assumption in physics, researchers ran a light emitting diode (LED) with electrodes reversed in order to cool another device mere nanometers away.
Bigger teams aren't always better in science and tech
A new analysis of more than 65 million papers, patents and software projects found that smaller teams produce much more disruptive and innovative research than large teams, which more often develop and consolidate existing knowledge.
High-performance quantum dot mode-locked laser on silicon
Ten years into the future. That's about how far an electrical and computer engineering professor and his research team are reaching with the recent development of their mode-locked quantum dot lasers on silicon. It's technology that not only can massively increase the data transmission capacity of data centers, telecommunications companies and network hardware products to come, but do so with high stability, low noise and the energy efficiency of silicon photonics.
Revealing human antibody secrets
Using sophisticated gene sequencing and computing techniques, researchers have achieved a first-of-its-kind glimpse into how the body's immune system gears up to fight off infection.
Mathematical monotsukuri: Summing a constant may help to detect synchronized brain activity
Scientists have found a simple, yet effective, way to improve how synchronization is measured in chaotic systems. The technique consists in adding a constant parameter to the 'analytic signals' in a way that emphasizes certain aspects of their timing. This could help improve brain-computer interfaces, which are meant to aid disabled people.
Artificial intelligence could help to foil online dating scams
Dating apps and websites could soon use computing algorithms that 'think' like humans to pinpoint fake profiles designed to con victims out of thousands of pounds.
Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help
Laser-induced graphene combines with many materials to make tough, conductive composites for wearable electronics, anti-icing, antimicrobial applications, sensors and water treatment.
Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement
By zeroing in on humans' gait, body symmetry and foot placement, researchers are teaching self-driving cars to recognize and predict pedestrian movements with greater precision than current technologies.
New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'
Researchers have developed a new AI-driven platform that can analyze how pathogens infect our cells with the precision of a trained biologist.
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre Research has revealed that walking simulations are blurring the boundaries of different art forms to create a new literary genre. Walking simulations -- video games where there are no winners and no one is shot at or killed -- have become increasingly popular in the last few years.
Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics
Sustainable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, such as those that harness low-enthalpy geothermal energy, are needed to reduce collective energy use and mitigate the continued effects of a warming climate. Researchers use asymptotic expansion techniques to study the harmonic thermal response of vertical geothermal boreholes in such systems to sub-annual harmonic excitations.
Why bribery works and what changes its effectiveness
A new study suggests that greed, and not the willingness to return the favor, is the main reason people give in to bribery. But the research also finds there are times when the almighty buck can be ignored and effects of a bribe can be lessened.
Questions in quantum computing: How to move electrons with light
To design future quantum technologies, scientists pinpoint how microwaves interact with matter.
Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease
Smartphones aren't just for selfies anymore. A novel cell phone imaging algorithm can now analyze assays typically evaluated via spectroscopy, a powerful device used in scientific research. Researchers analyzed more than 10,000 images and found that their method consistently outperformed existing algorithms under a wide range of operating field conditions. This technique reduces the need for bulky equipment and increases the precision of quantitative results.
Using artificial intelligence to engineer materials' properties
New system of 'strain engineering' can change a material's optical, electrical, and thermal properties.
Scientists use smartphones to improve dismal rating of nation's civil infrastructure
Scientists at the have developed smartphone-based technologies that can monitor civil infrastructure systems such as crumbing roads and aging bridges.
Scientists use machine learning to ID source of Salmonella
A team of scientists has developed a machine-learning approach that could lead to quicker identification of the animal source of certain Salmonella outbreaks.
Engineers develop room temperature, two-dimensional platform for quantum technology
Researchers have now demonstrated a new hardware platform based on isolated electron spins in a two-dimensional material. The electrons are trapped by defects in sheets of hexagonal boron nitride, a one-atom-thick semiconductor material, and the researchers were able to optically detect the system's quantum states.
Chirality of Weyl fermions
Quasiparticles that behave like massless fermions, known as Weyl fermions, have been in recent years at the center of a string of exciting findings in condensed matter physics. Physicists now report experiments in which they got a handle on one of the defining properties of Weyl fermions -- their chirality.
Toward automated animal identification in wildlife research
A new program automatically detects regions of interest within images, alleviating a serious bottleneck in processing photos for wildlife research.
Scientists build the smallest optical frequency comb to-date
Scientists have built a photonic integrated, compact, and portable soliton microcomb source. The device is less than 1 cm3 in size, and is driven by an on-chip indium phosphide laser consuming less than 1 Watt of electrical power. It can be used in LIDAR, data center interconnects, and even satellites.
Next-generation optics in just two minutes of cooking time
One of the key building blocks of flexible photonic circuits and ultra-thin optics are metasurfaces. And engineers have now discovered a simple way of making these surfaces in just a few minutes -- without needing a clean room -- using a method already employed in manufacturing.
Quantum strangeness gives rise to new electronics
Today, a new breed of electronic devices, bearing unique properties, is being developed. As ultra-miniaturization continues apace, researchers have begun to explore the intersection of physical and chemical properties occurring at the molecular scale.
Famous 'sandpile model' shown to move like a traveling sand dune
The so-called Abelian sandpile model has been studied by scientists for more than 30 years. Even though the sandpile model serves as the archetypical model to study self-organized criticality, questions about its characteristics are still open and remain an active field of research. Researchers have now discovered a new property of this mathematical model: they managed to induce dynamics in the self-similar fractal patterns reminiscent of sand dunes in the desert.
Psychology: Robot saved, people take the hit
To what extent are people prepared to show consideration for robots? A new study suggests that, under certain circumstances, some people are willing to endanger human lives -- out of concern for robots.
Supercomputing propels jet atomization research for industrial processes
Researchers employ high-performance computing to help bring spray simulations to a commercial level.
New legislation needed to regulate police facial recognition technology
Facial recognition technology, being trialled by two major police forces in Britain, should be subjected to more rigorous testing and transparency, according to new research.
New phenomenon discovered that fixes a common problem in lasers: Wavelength splitting
Physicists have discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. The never-before-seen phenomenon will be important for an emerging field of photonics research, including one day making micro-chips that code information using light instead of electrons.
Positive thinking during pregnancy may help children's ability in math and science
Your attitude during pregnancy could have an effect on your child's ability in math and science, according to a new study.
Gummy-like robots that could help prevent disease
Scientists have developed microscopic, hydrogel-based muscles that can manipulate and mechanically stimulate biological tissue. These soft, biocompatible robots could be used for targeted therapy and to help diagnose and prevent disease.
Will moving to the commercial cloud leave some data users behind?
A growing volume of information from satellites and other sources is leading many federal agencies to consider commercial cloud services to store and distribute the data. A policy forum article urges caution about the design of these commercial cloud partnerships and possible imposition of user fees.
Why forgetting at work can be a good thing
Psychologists and information scientists have looked at how digital information systems support daily work and why it can be a good for us to forget certain things.
New materials for high-voltage supercapacitors
A research team has developed new materials for supercapacitors with higher voltage and better stability than other materials.
Mosaic-like gene deletion and duplication pattern shaping the immune system discovered
A team of researchers has developed a computational tool for analyzing genetic changes related to the immune system. With this new development, the onset of many autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and celiac disease, infectious diseases, such as hepatitis C and flu, and various forms of cancer may be predicted.
Bees can do basic arithmetic
Researchers set out to test whether bees could do math, building on a groundbreaking finding that bees understand the concept of zero. The new study shows bees can be taught to recognize colors as symbolic representations for addition and subtraction, and use this information to solve arithmetic problems. The revelation that even the miniature brain of a honeybee can grasp basic mathematical operations has implications for the future development of AI.
Simpler parts make for a more efficient system
A team of researchers has discovered that decentralized systems work better when the individual parts are less capable.
Unfamiliar words, not blue text, slows reading of hyperlinks
Hyperlinks slow down reading speed only when the linked word is unfamiliar, an effect that is independent of link color, according to new research. The effect is likely due to the reader's perception that the unfamiliar word may carry special importance in the sentence when formatted as a hyperlink.
Controllable electron flow in quantum wires
Scientist have found they can turn on and off the flow of current in a bismuth crystal subjected to a high magnetic field, making a new type of controllable quantum wire.
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