Computers & Math News -- ScienceDaily
Hacking and computer security. Read today's research news on hacking and protecting against codebreakers. New software, secure data sharing, and more.
Brain's imperfect execution of mathematically optimal perception
Human perception is based on mathematically optimal principles, but the brain implements those principles imperfectly, suggests new research.
Engineering researcher uses network science to understand how materials work
Using network science -- part of a larger mathematical field called graph theory -- a professor mapped long range atomic forces onto an incredibly complex graph to simulate macroscopic material behavior.
Electric skyrmions charge ahead for next-generation data storage
A team of researchers has observed chirality for the first time in polar skyrmions, in a material with reversible electrical properties -- a combination that could lead to more powerful data storage devices that continue to hold information, even after they've been turned off.
Researchers use 3D printer to print glass
For the first time, researchers have successfully 3D printed chalcogenide glass, a unique material used to make optical components that operate at mid-infrared wavelengths. The ability to 3D print this glass could make it possible to manufacture complex glass components and optical fibers for new types of low-cost sensors, telecommunications components and biomedical devices.
Adding human touch to unchatty chatbots may lead to bigger letdown
Sorry, Siri, but just giving a chatbot a human name or adding humanlike features to its avatar might not be enough to win over a user if the device fails to maintain a conversational back-and-forth with that person, according to researchers. In fact, those humanlike features might create a backlash against less responsive humanlike chatbots.
How superstitions spread
Superstitious beliefs may seem irrational, but they can nevertheless catch on in a society. Using an evolutionary approach to studying the emergence of coordinated behaviors, biologists showed how a jumble of individual beliefs, including superstitions, can coalesce into an accepted social norm.
Can science writing be automated?
A team of researchers has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence, that can read scientific papers and render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two.
Why language technology can't handle Game of Thrones (yet)
Researchers have performed a thorough evaluation of four different name recognition tools on popular 40 novels, including A Game of Thrones. Their analyses highlight types of names and texts that are particularly challenging for these tools to identify as well as solutions for mitigating this.
Giving robots a better feel for object manipulation
A new learning system improves robots' abilities to mold materials into target shapes and make predictions about interacting with solid objects and liquids. The system, known as a learning-based particle simulator, could give industrial robots a more refined touch -- and it may have fun applications in personal robotics, such as modelling clay shapes or rolling sticky rice for sushi.
New automated biological-sample analysis systems to accelerate disease detection
Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of fluids in microscale devices. Commonly called "labs on a chip," microfluidic systems are used to study and analyze very small-scale chemical or biological samples, replacing the extremely expensive and cumbersome instruments used for traditional biological analyses.
Forecasting contagious ideas: 'Infectivity' models accurately predict tweet lifespan
Estimating tweet infectivity from the first 50 retweets is the key to predicting whether a tweet will go viral, according to a new study.
Three-dimensional imaging identifies nutrient exchange in the human placenta
New three-dimensional imaging of the human placenta has been developed to help understand the reasons for fetal growth restriction.
New software aims to reduce variability in ELISA biomarker tests
A new computational approach has been developed to reduce variability in common research biomarker tests, a promising step in improving the ability of biomedical researchers and basic scientists to reproduce data and facilitate more consistent results across laboratories and long-term projects.
Artificial intelligence speeds efforts to develop clean, virtually limitless fusion energy
Scientists are applying deep learning -- a powerful new version of the machine learning form of artificial intelligence -- to forecast sudden disruptions that can halt fusion reactions and damage the doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house the reactions.
New deep-learning approach predicts protein structure from amino acid sequence
A scientist has used a form of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to predict the 3D structure of effectively any protein based on its amino acid sequence. This new approach for computationally determining protein structure achieves accuracy comparable to current state-of-the-art methods but at speeds upward of a million times faster.
World-record quantum computing
A world-record result in reducing errors in semiconductor electron 'spin qubits', a type of building block for quantum computers, has been achieved.
New way to improve cybersecurity
Researchers may have identified a new way to improve network security.
Need more energy storage? Just hit 'print'
Researchers have developed a conductive ink made from a special type of material they discovered, called MXene, that was used by the researchers to print components for electronic devices. The ink is additive-free, which means it can print the finished devices in one step without any special finishing treatments.
New software tool could provide answers to some of life's most intriguing questions
A researcher has spearheaded the development of a software tool that can provide conclusive answers to some of the world's most fascinating questions.
New algorithm allows for faster, animal-free chemical toxicity testing
The use of animals to test the toxicity of chemicals may one day become outdated thanks to a low-cost, high-speed algorithm.
A novel data-compression technique for faster computer programs
A novel technique rethinks hardware data compression to free up more memory used by computers and mobile devices, allowing them to run faster and perform more tasks simultaneously.
New form of laser for sound
The optical laser has grown to a $10 billion global technology market since it was invented in 1960, and has led to Nobel prizes for Art Ashkin for developing optical tweezing and Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland for work with pulsed lasers. Now scientists have created a different kind of laser -- a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin.
Roadmap for AI in medical imaging
Researchers are examining applications for diagnostic medical imaging, identifying knowledge gaps and developing a roadmap to prioritize research needs.
Study finds natural variation in sex ratios at birth and sex ratio inflation in 12 countries
Biostatisticians have developed a new estimation method for assessing natural variations in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) for all countries in the world.
A biosynthetic dual-core cell computer
Researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers.
Google searches reveal popular bird species
Cross-referencing a decade of Google searches and citizen science observations, researchers have determined which of 621 North American bird species are currently the most popular and which characteristics of species drive human interest.
Blockchain protocol to prevent counterfeit pharmaceutical sales
Researchers want to prevent counterfeit pharmaceuticals from flooding the market.They have recently published a blockchain protocol that could do just that.
Computer games for fish uncover why some prey lead and others follow
For the first time, researchers have shed new light on the evolution of different social roles within animal groups by exploring how fish predators target and attack groups of virtual prey. The study found leaders in groups of animals are more vulnerable to attack from predators.
Time is money, especially when it comes to giving
Would you be more likely to donate to charity if you could report the gift sooner on your taxes? According to a new article, the answer is yes. Researchers found that changing the deadline for donations closer to tax time increased donations by nine per cent.
High-speed 'electron camera' films molecular movie in HD
With an extremely fast 'electron camera,' researchers have made the first high-definition 'movie' of ring-shaped molecules breaking open in response to light. The results could further our understanding of similar reactions with vital roles in chemistry, such as the production of vitamin D in our bodies.
New theory derived from classical physics predicts how economies respond to major disturbances
Understanding economies in times of crises? Modern macroeconomics failed so far. Researchers are now proposing a novel method that makes the effects of shocks on out-of-equilibrium economies computable for the first time.
Power to the people: How everyday acts of defiance can shape and change markets
Subtle, hidden and everyday acts of resistance and defiance by people with limited resources could have an impact on markets in societies where state and religion is all-powerful. These are the key findings of a new study which shows consumers and individuals can help markets to evolve in societies where they cannot freely and openly participate in them.
Abundance of information narrows our collective attention span
A new study finds increasingly narrow peaks of collective attention over time, supporting a 'social acceleration' occurring across different domains.
Artificial intelligence singles out neurons faster than a human can
Biomedical engineers have developed an automated process that can track and map active neurons as accurately as a human can, but in a fraction of the time. This new technique, based on a deep learning algorithm, addresses a critical roadblock in neuron analysis, allowing researchers to rapidly gather and process neuronal signals for real-time behavioral studies.
Quantum simulation more stable than expected
A localization phenomenon boosts the accuracy of solving quantum many-body problems with quantum computers which are otherwise challenging for conventional computers. This brings such digital quantum simulation within reach on quantum devices available today.
New method inverts the self-assembly of liquid crystals
In liquid crystals, molecules automatically arrange themselves in an ordered fashion. Researchers have discovered a method that allows an anti-ordered state, which will enable novel material properties and potentially new technical applications, such as artificial muscles for soft robotics.
Performance of perovskite solar cells: The interface makes the difference
Researchers look in detail at the interfaces in perovskite solar cells to understand the differences observed in their performance.
Digital parent training for child's disruptive behavior successful in primary health care
A program developed for the early detection of children's disruptive behavior and low-threshold digital parent training intervention was successfully transferred to child health clinics in primary health care, shows a new study. In addition, the program's low discontinuation rate implies that parents experienced digitally implemented intervention as both user-friendly and easily accessible. This is the first study on the implementation of an online psychosocial treatment in pediatric primary health care based on population screening.
Largest, fastest array of microscopic 'traffic cops' for optical communications
Engineers have built a new photonic switch that can control the direction of light passing through optical fibers faster and more efficiently than ever. This optical 'traffic cop' could one day revolutionize how information travels through data centers and high-performance supercomputers that are used for artificial intelligence and other data-intensive applications.
Heads in the cloud: Scientists predict internet of thoughts 'within decades'
Researchers predict that exponential progress in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, artificial intelligence, and computation will lead this century to the development of a 'human brain/cloud interface' (B/CI), that connects neurons and synapses in the brain to vast cloud-computing networks in real time.
Harnessing microorganisms for smart microsystems
A research team has developed a method to construct a biohybrid system that incorporates Vorticella microorganisms. The method allows movable structures to be formed in a microchannel and harnessed to Vorticella. The biohybrid system demonstrates the conversion of motion from linear motion to rotation. These fundamental technologies help researchers to create wearable smart microsystems by using autonomous microorganisms.
Scientists build a machine to see all possible futures
Researchers have implemented a prototype quantum device that can generate and analyze a quantum superposition of possible futures. Using a novel quantum algorithm, the possible outcomes of a decision process are encoded as a superposition of different photon locations. Using interferometry, the team show that it is possible to conduct a search through the set of possible futures without looking at each future individually.
Clear sight in the data fog with PAGA
Experimental molecular assays with single-cell resolution generate big and complex data. Researchers are now presenting their computer algorithm PAGA. They create data-driven, easily interpretable maps that reveal cellular processes and fates in complex contexts.
AI agent offers rationales using everyday language to explain its actions
Researchers have developed an artificially intelligent (AI) agent that can automatically generate natural language explanations in real-time to convey the motivations behind its actions.
Advanced virtual technology captures how coral reefs recover after bleaching
Researchers have used new imaging software to detect dramatic recovery after a bleaching event on the reefs surrounding remote Palmyra Atoll in the tropical Pacific.
Engineers tap DNA to create 'lifelike' machines
Tapping into the unique nature of DNA, engineers have created simple machines constructed of biomaterials with properties of living things.
Scientists drill into white graphene to create artificial atoms
By drilling holes into a thin two-dimensional sheet of hexagonal boron nitride with a gallium-focused ion beam, scientists have created artificial atoms that generate single photons, which work in air and room temperature.
New ways to image, characterize unique material
Researchers have imaged and modeled the unique geometry of 2D borophene, a material that could surpass the promises of graphene for electronic, thermal, optical and other applications.
Opioid epidemic may have cost US governments $37.8 billion in tax revenue
The opioid epidemic may have cost U.S. state and federal governments up to $37.8 billion in lost tax revenue due to opioid-related employment loss.
Infinite number of quantum particles gives clues to big-picture behavior at large scale
In quantum mechanics, measuring both the position and speed of a particle at the same time is not possible. To identify a particle's characteristics, physicists introduced the notion of quasi-distribution of position and momentum. In a new study scientists have reversed this approach; starting with quantum mechanical rules, they explore how to derive an infinite number of quasi-distributions, to emulate the classical mechanics approach.
Wonder material: Individual 2D phosphorene nanoribbons made for the first time
Tiny, individual, flexible ribbons of crystalline phosphorus have been made in a world first, and they could revolutionize electronics and fast-charging battery technology. Since the isolation of 2-dimensional phosphorene, which is the phosphorus equivalent of graphene, in 2014, more than 100 theoretical studies have predicted that new and exciting properties could emerge by producing narrow 'ribbons' of this material. These properties could be extremely valuable to a range of industries.
'Deep learning' casts wide net for novel 2D materials
Engineers use 'deep learning' techniques to speed up simulations of novel two-dimensional materials to understand their characteristics and how they're affected by high temperature and radiation.
New electron microscopy technique limits membrane destruction
Researchers have created an electron microscopy technique termed 'cryoAPEX' that accurately tracks membrane proteins in a well-preserved cell.
New algorithm optimizes quantum computing problem-solving
Researchers have developed an algorithm that enhances the ability of a quantum computer to more efficiently find the best solution for complicated problems.
Virtual reality offers benefits for Parkinson's disease patients
Researchers are reporting early success with a new tool to help people with Parkinson's disease improve their balance and potentially decrease falls with high-tech help: virtual reality. After practicing with a virtual reality system for six weeks, people with Parkinson's disease demonstrated improved obstacle negotiation and balance along with more confidence navigating around obstacles in their path.
Tweeting their own horn: Author self-promotion on Twitter increases research dissemination
Researchers have presented a new study that aimed to determine the effect of authors' self-promotion on the social media site, Twitter, in regards to the dissemination of their research.
All things could be part of the Internet of Things with new RFID system
Frying pans, pill bottles, yoga mats, coffee cups and countless other nonelectronic objects could be turned into a network of Internet of Things sensors with a new RFID-based technology.
Can flipping coins replace animal experiments?
Instead of repeating an experiment in a mouse model of disease in their laboratory, researchers used a coin toss to confirm whether a drug protects the brain against a stroke.
Pin-sized sensor could bring chemical ID to smartphone-sized devices
Engineers have developed a spectrometer so small and simple that it could integrate with the camera of a typical cellphone without sacrificing accuracy.
Meet Blue, the low-cost, human-friendly robot designed for AI
Researchers have created a new low-cost, human friendly robot named Blue, designed to use recent advances in artificial intelligence and deep reinforcement learning to master intricate human tasks, all while remaining affordable and safe enough that every AI researcher could have one. The team hopes Blue will accelerate the development of robotics for the home.
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